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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
true experiment
Random assignment to 2 or more groups
Best way to determine cause-effect
Can be difficult to generalize. lacks realism, ethical limitations
Compare 2 or more pre-existing groups.
Varying degree of control and manipulation of IV.
Controlled measurement of DV.
Pros-provides some degree of cause-effect determination, when random assignment is not possible. reduces ethical issues
Cons: non-equivalent groups compromies internal validity
Case Study
Analyzes one or a few individuals in depth
Used in clinical research
Collect questionnaire from representative sample.
Observational Study
Record behavior in controlled or realistic setting
Archival Research
Compare groups by collecting data from existing public records
Broad set of principles that organizes, predicts, and explains phenomenom
Testable prediction derived from theory
Operational Definitions
Identify concrete, observalbe characteristics of abstract concepts
Independant variable
causal variable
Dependant Variable
External Validity
extent to which research findings can be generalized (where you can apply the findings to other things)
Internal Validity
extent to which one can be confident that the independant variable caused changes in the dependant variable
Wilhelm Wundt
1879, formal founder of psychology
the scientific study of human and animal behavior and mental processes
Assess and treat mental, emiotional and behavioral disorders
Can range from short-term crises to schizophrenia
Counseling psychologists
Help people accommodate to change or to make changes in lifestyles.
Developmental psychologists
Study the development of the human being that takes place througout life.
Engineering psychologists
Conduct research on how people work best with machines. Most work within an industry, but some employed with the government. also know as human factors specialists
Educational psychologists
Concentrate on how effective teaching and learning take place
Forensic Psychologists
Apply psychological principles to legal issues. Used in court for courts and jury selection.
Health Psychologists
Interested in how biological, social factors affect health and illness.
Industrial/organizational psychologists
Apply psychological principles and research methods to the work place in the interst of improving productivity and the quality of work life. Many are human resource specialists, help with staffing, training and employee development.
Explore the relationship between brain systems and behavior. Sutdy the way the brain creates and stores memories, or how diseases and injuries of the brain affect emotion, perception and behavior.
Quantitative and measurement psychologists
Focus on methods and techniques for acquiring and analyzing psych data.
Rehabilitation psychologists
Work with stroke and accident victims, people with mental retardation and those with developmental disabilities, caused by conditions like cerebal palsy, epilepsy and autism.
School psychologists
Work directly with public or private schools. They assess and counsel students, consult with parents and school staff.
Social psychologists
study how a person's mental life and behavior is shaped by interactions with other people. Interested in all aspects of interpersonal relationships, including individual and group influences.
Sports psychologists
Help athletes focus on competition goals and become more motivated and deal with anxiety and fear of failure that accompany compeition.
Behavioral perspective
Behavior is learned. Born Blank passive reacters.
Change:Reinforce desirable behavior-punish or ignore undersirable behavior
Biological perspective
Behavior is shaped by brain structures, neurocheimcals and genes
no free will
Change:molecular aspects of the body
Cognitive perspective
Behavior guided by brain's "software"-programmed by biology and experience
views humans as rational
To change: show "irrationality" of existing script and replace with more functional one
Behavior is guided by the desire to self-actualize and distorted by social expectation
born good
to fix-allow person to find way back to true self
Behavior is shaped by unconscious desires and memories
Born selfish and violent
Change:reveal unconsious motives and conflicts via analysis-undertanding resolves issues
Myth epistemology
Communally derived (folk lore)
Authoritarian epistemology
Dogma established by those in power
Rational Epistemology
Derived by internal logic and reason
Empirical Epistemology
Objective and publicly validated observations
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemtal struce of the human mind
the view that a)knowledge comes from experience via the senses and b)science flourishes through observation and experiment
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
hindsight bias
the tendency to beleive,afterlearning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define reseach variables.