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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain points SUPPORTING that evolution explains why men rape
-sex is something that females have that males want
-other animals rape
-men rape when socially disenfranchised
-fact that men can be aroused and still rape suggests a rape adaptation
Explain points AGAINST the idea that evolution explains why men rape
-rape meant to humiliate and degrade women
-expression of physical power
-access to women does not deter men from rape
-deliberate, hostile, violent act of degradation and possession designed to inspire fear
Explain points SUPPORTING that ADD exists
-medical diagnosis derived from genetic studies, brain scans, epidemiological studies
-ADD is collection of symptoms, 6/18 minimum
-meds are single most effective treatment
-child psychs should diagnose it
Explain points AGAINST idea that ADD exists
-just another fad diagnosis
-symptoms more common of fatigue or stress than psych disorder
-attempt to treat diverse issues with single treatment
-lets pt avoid issues of stress/unhappiness with meds
-too quickly diagnosed
Explain points supporting that Ritalin is Overprescribed
-stimulants have high potential for abuse, serious withdrawal symps
-growth suppressed or stunted by stims
-propaganda leads public to think these drugs correct chemical imbalances
-no evidence stims improve academic performance
-agitation, hostility, depression, psychosis can result
Explain points AGAINST the idea that Ritalin is overprescribed
-no reported addiction cases, no suggestion that kids will get addicted to other substances
-myth that stims stunt growth
-ADHD is largely genetic disorder
-stims improve attn span helps academics
-psychosis is rare and only at high doses
Points SUPPORTING that all forms of MDMA (ecstasy) should be prohibited
-even small doses reduce body's ability to metabolize the drug. Dehydration, hypothermia, seizures
-clinic studies show uses have impaired learning, memory, and general IQ
-associated with damage to serotonin releasing brain cells
-users have more impulsivity, anxiety, depression
-tablet often laced with other drugs
Points AGAINST idea that all forms of MDMA (ecstasy) should be prohibited
-most adverse rx's can be avoided by using lowest effective dose
-no studies report stats from infrequent mild users, just abusers
-enhances serotonin and mood in matter of hours
-facilitates psychotherapy, alleviated feelings of hopelessness
-if regulated, contamination effects are aviodable
Points SUPPORTING that abstinence should be the goal of treating people with alcohol problems
-logical treatment goal, most direct approach
-1/2 people being treated are able to achieve it
-if dependent, find controlled drinking attempts unsuccessful
-no one can predict what kinds of people are capable of moderating use
-professional has job of stating treatment, even if it goes against pt's own ideas
Ponints AGAINST the idea that abstinence should be the goal of treating people with alcohol problems
-pressuring all drinkers to abstain ignores continuum of severity
-some do better with controlled drinking programs than w/abstinence
-control is more successful with prof. guidance
-experts have list to predict who does well with controlled drinking
-experts believe more people would seek help if offered a choice between control and abstinence.
Points SUPPORTING that people with anorexia should have the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment
-some are competent to refuse therapy
-mental health professionals should respect pt's autonomy
-force feeding may save life but won't fix underlying condition
-pt may be better when clinician agrees to work within their frame of reference
Points AGAINST the idea that people with anorexia should have the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment
-pt's have a thought disturbance about food intake
-experts say pt's are not competent enough to make this choice, usually grateful once not on the downward spiral
-once weight is stable, pt more likely to appreciate and seek treatments
-allowing decision may help therapeutic relationship but at risk of health
Points SUPPORTING the idea that Mental Health Professionals should serve as gatekeepers for physician-assisted suicide
-mental health assessment is imperative for anyone wanting to die
-professional helps evaluate if pt has capacity for rational decision-making
-profs. are underused in end-of-life decisions
-profs understand importance of making decision based on many factors
Points AGAINST the idea that Mental Health Professionals should serve as gatekeepers for physician-assisted suicide
-profs shouldn't have social authority to determine when is the right time to die
-competence is a social, not scientific idea-->hard to determine
-not many profs work in hospices, nursing homes, etc
-in absence of standards, prof may assume themselves the "reasonable person" and make all decisions
define "personality disorder"
a longlasting maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior, dating back to adolescence or young adulthood
What are some diagnostic features of a personality disorder?
-enduring pattern of inner experience/behavior, differs markedly from what is expected culturally. 2+:
-cognition: ways of perceiving self, others, events
-affectivity: range, intensity, appropriateness of emotional expression
-interpersonal functioning
-impulse control
Pattern is inflexible and pervasive across range of situations. Causes distress/impairment.
What are some characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?
-lack of regard for society's moral/legal standards
-aka psychopaths, sociopaths
-lack of remorse or shame
-failure to learn from experience
-extreme egocentricity
-absence of nervousness
What is adult antisocial behavior?
-illegal or immoral behavior, such as stealing, lying, or cheating
Define borderline personality disorder
characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability, most evident in relationships, mood, and sense of identity
what does the term "splitting" refer to?
viewing a person as being all good or all bad rather than a realistic combination
-borderline persons take this view
what is parasuicide?
behaviors that could kill oneself used as means of getting attention
Describe histrionic personality disorder
tendencies to express sell in overly dramatic ways
-fleeting nature of emotions
-used more to gain attn than to express
What is narcissistic personality disorder?
having an unrealistic inflated sense of own importance (grandiosity)
What is paranoid personality disorder?
extremely suspicious of others, always on guard
What is Schizoid personality disorder?
characterized by an indifference to social and sexual relationships, very limited range of emotional experience and expression
-perceived as cold, withdrawn, seclusive
What is schizotypal personality disorder?
-peculiar, eccentric, oddly bizarre in way they think, behave, and relate to others
-speech content sounds strange to others, may have perceptual illusions
-often suspicious
-bland life
What is avoidant personality disorder?
overly concerned about appearing foolish, being publicly embarrased, saying something stupid
-refrain almost entirely from social situations
What is dependent personality disorder?
-strongly drawn to others, so clinging and passive they may achieve the opposite of desires as others become impatient with their lack of autonomy
-go to extremes to avoid being disliked
What is obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?
-immobilized by inability to make a decision
-perfectionistic and inflexible
what are learning disorders?
delay or deficit in academic skill tha tis evident when an individual's achievement on standarized tests is substantially below what would be expected for same age/education/IQ
Describe ADHD
involves hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattentiveness
(carelessness, forgetfullness, easily distracted, etc)
What is a conduct disorder?
characterized by repetitive and persistent violation of other's rights
-stealing, truancy, running away from home, lying, fire-setting, breaking and entering, etc
What is oppositional defiant disorder?
children and teens showing pattern of negaitve, hostile, defiant behavs that result in sig. family or schools probs
-blame others for problems, insist they are a victim
what is separation anxiety disorder?
children have intense and inappropriate anxiety concerning separation from home or caregivers.
-may make self physically ill
-worry something bad will happen
-demanding, intrusive, need constant attention
What are some other categories of disorders that originate in childhood?
-childhood eating disorders (pica, feeding disorder, rumination disorder)
-Tic disorders (tourette's)
-elimination disorders (encorpresis or enuresis)
-reactive attachment disorders
-stereotypic movement disorder
-selective mutism
define substance intoxication
temporary maladaptive experience of behavioral or psychological changes due to the accumulation of a substance in the body
What are "cluster A" disorders?
paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
-off and eccentric behavior
What are "cluster B" disorders?
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
-overdramatic, emotional, erratic or unpredictable
What are "cluster C" disorders?
avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
-involve anxious or fearful behaviors
What does the response-modulation hypothesis propose?
psychopaths have a difficult time processing goal-irrelevant stimuli
Which personality disorder shares the most features with antisocial personality disorder
Which defense mechanism do people with paranoid personality disorder overuse, according to psychoanalysts?
Which therapy has been shown to be somewhat effective in treating symptoms of borderline personality disorder?
Dialectical behavioral
Which two personality disorder were found to be more prevalent in the children of women who suffered through a famine during the 1940's?

What physical characteristics do schizophrenia and schizotypal personality share?
enlarged brain ventricles and eye movement abnormalities
Which Axis II disorder has the best chance to resolve in therapy?
Dependent personality disorder
What is the hereditability rate of autism?
What is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders in outpatient and inpatient programs?
Conduct disorder
which gender is separation anxiety more prevalent for?
Describe substance tolerance
related to substance withdrawal
-occurs when an individual requires a larger and lager amount of substance to achieve desired effect
Define substance abuse
maladaptive pattern of substance use occurring within a 12 month period that leads to sig. impairment or distress evidenced by *failure to meet obligations, *use of subs in physically hazardous situations, *legal problems, *interpersonal problems`
Describe substance dependence
maladaptive pattern of sub. use manifested by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symps during 12 mos caused by continued use of sub.
Describe Wenicke's encephalopathy
involves delirium, eye movement disturbances, difficulties in movement and balance, deterioration of peripheral nerves to hands and feet. Caused by thiamine deficiency caused by alcohol abuse
Describe Korsakoff's syndrome
permanent form of dementia with retrograde and anterograde amnesia
Describe cirrhosis
fatty liver caused by heavy drinking leads to this liver disease, primary cause of alcohol related death
What does alcohol deydrogenase (ADH) do and what affects it?
-zinc deficiancy leads to decreased ADH activity
-a stomach enzyme
-breaks down portion of alcohol into fatty acids, CO2, and H2O before it gets into bloodstream
-women have lower ADH levels
What are some other major risks of longterm heavy drinking?
-immune deficiency
-severe hangover, sleep disturbances, anxiety, tremulousness, sympathetic hyperactivity, psychosis, seizures, death (from withdrawal)
What is the inheratabilty rate of alcoholism?
Which neurotransmitters are thought to be involved in alcoholism?
-GABA, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids
Describe the abstinence violation effect
-a sense of loss of control over one's behavior that has an overwhelming and demoralizing effect
Describe the medication naltrexone
-originally used for opioid dependence
-blocks pleasurable effects of opioids, get less reinforcing effect from alcohol and better luck abstaining
-unpleasant gastrointestinal effects
what are delerium tremens and how are they treated?
-caused by withdrawal, involves ANS dysfunction, confusion, possible seizures
-managed with benzodiazepines
What does disulfiram treat?
-aversive reaction to alcohol
-inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, which works like ADH
-causes severe physical rx for up to an hour
What are some examples of stimulants, and what do they do?
-caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine
-amp: uppers, give rush of good feelings, have bad withdrawals
-coc: used in pharmaceuticals for a long time, shorter but more intense Up, crashes after effect
What is amenorrhea?
missing at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles
-experienced by many women with anorexia