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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics which define abnormal behavior
-risk to self or others
-socially/culturally unacceptable behavior
Three major causes of abnormal behavior
Biological: genetics, medical reasons, exposure to enviromental stim,

Psych: life experiences, traumatic experiences

Soci/Cult: troubled relationships (different levels of intereaction)
What is the biophychosicoal perspective of abnormality?
refers to the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors playing a role in the development of an individual
Describe the diathesis-stress model
diathesis: predisposition to a disorder (genetic)
stress: triggers risk for developing disorder

idea=person may be likely to develop disease his whole life but won't show symptoms until stressed just right
What are some psych ideas/practices from ancient history?
-trephining: drill hole in your head to release demons
-exorcism: magical person drives away spirits
-Hippocrates: made theory that black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood were main body componants/source of issue
What is an asylum?
poorhouses which housed emotionally disturbed persons (lunatics)
Compare the medical model and the psychoanalytic model of abnormal behavior
med: view that ab. behav.s are based in physcial problems, should be treated mecially (belief of APA when founded)

psych: ab. behav. explained by unconcious mind (Mesmer)
Describe hysteria
disorder where psychological problems manifested in physical form, treated with hypnosis by Charcot
Describe the deinstitutionalizaiton movement, and its effects
-promoted release of psychiatric clients into society (end cruel treatment)
-patients had little stability (underfunding of alternative housing), many became homeless or recieved insufficient treatment
What is a concordance rate?
the likelihood of relatives having the same disorder as you
Differentiate 'patient' and 'client' in terms of implications and usage
pt: someone who is ill, passively being treated. Holds stigma in psych field

clt: person seeking professional treatment, relfects collaborative endevor of therapy. Preferred term
Differentiate 'psychiatrist' from 'clinical psychologist'
psychi: medical Dr (MD)

psycho: PhD or PsyD, trained in counseling rather than on disorders, trained in testing
4 assumptions of the DSM-IV
-medical model (disorder viewed as disease)
-atheoretical orientation (descriptive, not explanatory)
-categorical approach (group diseases with similarities)
-multiaxial system (characterized in multidimensional way)
5 Axes of DSM-IV
I: Clinical Disorders (ie depression, schizo)
II: Personality Disorders and Mental retardation (enduring aspects of person)
III: General Medical Conditions (lasting or recent)
IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems (ie problems with parents, economic problems)
V: Global Assessment of Functioning (scale of 1-100)
Describe some culture-bound syndromes
-patterns of behavior particular to a certain culture
ie: ghost sickness= preoccupation with the deceased (Amer. Indian)
ie: Mal de ojo= under influence of the evil eye (Mediterranean cultures)
Differentiate between immediate management, short term goals, and long term goals
imm: address most pressing needs at moment (calm down)
Shrt: change thinking, behavior, or emotions
long: alterations in personality and relationships
Describe psychiatric hospitals: who they're for and what they do
-treat clients at risk of harming self or others (admitted or committed)
-some new drug regimens are best done in a hospital
-observe client carefully and control environment
Describe outpatient treatment facilities: who they're for and what they do
-prefered for most clients
-in clinics or private office
-individual or group sessions
-may offer vocational counseling, self-help organizaions, help with domestic management, etc
What is a community mental helth center?
outpatient clinics that provide services on a sliding fee scale
Describe halfway houses: who they're for and what they do
-clients need more services than outpatient, but are ready to live in the community
-live with other deinstitutionalized people
-staffed by professionals to help get them living independantly again
Describe day treatment programs: who they're for and what they do
-clients don't need a hospital, do need structure
-formally hospitalized
Describe other types of treatment sites: who they're for and what they do
-schools: guidance counselors and school psychologists (intervene with emotionally disturbed students)
-workplace: Employee Assisstance Program (help employees who has issues that might cause them to lose their job)
What is miliue therapy?
premise that environment (hospital) is a major component of the treatment. Working in a new setting is more beneficial than at the client's home
Differentiate unstructured interview from structured interview
UN: series of open-ended questions. Gather histories and general info

St: standardized questions, formally administered
What are the componants of a Mental Status Examination as observed by the clinician?
-Appearance and Behavior
-Orientation (aware of self and surroundings)
-Content of thought (obsessions, delusions, overvalued ideas, magical thinking)
-Thinking style and language (vocab, syntax)
-Affect and mood (what they show, how they feel)
-Perceptual experiences (hallucinations)
-Sense of Self (identity confusion)
-Cognitive functioning
-Insight and judgement
What are 3 types of reliability sought in psychological testing?
test-retest: take test 2x, get same score

interjudge: 2 people give same score for same item

internal consistancy: people with same level of symptom report same score on item
What types of validity are sought in psychological testing?
content: test reflects the info it's designed to test

criterion: scores related to other measues taken at same time, relate to future performance

construct: measures a theoretically derived psychological quality
Describe the Stanford-Binet IQ test
-records mental age / chronological age = IQ
-100 = average
Describe the Wechsler Intelligence Scales
-derivation IQ= convert score to show score in relation to others
Describe self-report clinical invetories
-standardized test items completed by individual being tested
-MPPI and MPPI-2 are common ones
Describe projective testing
-designed to tap into unconscious
-presented with ambiguous item and asked to describe in own thoughts
-ie inkblots
What does a behavioral self report serve to do?
-client reports frequency of target behaviors or thoughts
-client may not always recognize behavior is happening, might take inaccurate records
Describe behavioral observations
-preferred to take in vivo (natural context), record instances of target behavior
Describe environment assessment scales
-client uses scale to rate relationships with family on many levels and behaviors that occur there
Describe psychophysiological assessments
-assess changes in body occurring in response to stressors
-muscular tension, skin responses (Galvanic Skin Response), etc
What are some brain imaging techniques used in relation to physiological psych assessment?
MRI, functional MRI
PET scan
What is a neoropsychological assessment? Examples?
-gathers info on brain from psych tests, not imaging
-Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery
-may involve MPPI-1 or WAIS-III
What is the emphasis of psychodynamic perspective?
-theoretical orientation emphasizing unconscious determinants of behavior
Describe Freud's idea of psychodynamics
-interaction between the id, ego, and superego
-balance 'pleasure principle' of id with 'reality principle' of ego and 'ego ideal' of super ego
What are the psychosexual stages?
-oral stage ~18mos
-anal stage 18mos~3yrs
-phallic stage 3yrs~5yrs (sexually attracted to opposite sex parent)
-genital stage 12yrs+
-latency 5-12yrs
Describe Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
-trust v mistrust
-autonomy v shame/doubt
-initiative v guilt
-industry v inferiority
-ID achievement v diffusion
-intimacy v isolation
-generativity v stagnation
-ego integrity v despair
Name some forms of psychoanalytic treatment
-free association
-dream analysis
-transference (transfer feelings towards others onto clinician)
-working though (achieve healthier resolution from childhood issues)
What did Mary Aisnworth study and describe?
-attachment style
-fearful, preoccupied, dismissing, secure
What is the humanistic perspective
-human motivation is based on the inherent tendency to strive for self-fulfillment and meaning in life
What is Carl Roger's theory about?
"Person centered theory"
-self image and experiences should have congruence
-conditions of worth-child is only loved if conditions are met
What is Maslow's theory about?
"Self-actualization theory"
-hierarchy of needs which must be fulfilled
-physiological, security/safety, love/affiliation, esteem, self actualization needs
Describe the sociocultural perspective
emphasizes ways that individuals are influenced by people, social institutions, and social forces in the world
-family perspective: problems stem from family issues
-social discrimination: issues stem from discrimination
-social influences and historical events
Describe some treatments from the sociocultural perspective
-family therapy
-group therapy
-milieu therapy
What are the primary and secondary reinforcers of operant conditioning?
1: satisfy biological need, intrinsically rewarding

2: used to obtain primary reinforcers (ie money, priase)
Keywords associated with Bandura's theory
-vicarious reinforcement
-Social Cognitive Theory
What are some things described by theories of Ellis and Beck?
-automatic thoughts ("that was a stupid thing to say...")
-dysfunctional attitudes
-irrational beliefs
What are some treatment techniques in Cognitively based theories
-conditioning techniques (counterconditioning, systematic desensitization,
-contingency management techniques (reward for good, no reward for bad; token economy)
-modeling and self-efficacy training
-cognitive therapies (cog. restructuring,
What is the multifactorial polygenic threshold model?
-several genes of varying influence are involved in the transmission of a disorder or characteristic
What are some treatments in the biological model of psych?
-psychosurgery (disconnect parts of brain from each other)
-ECT (shock treatments)
-medications (SSRIs, etc)
-biofeedback (somatic intervention combined with behavioral principles)
Points for the case that Psych Debriefing is a Harmful Intervention for Survivors of Trauma
-mostly emotional first aid
-if tools are not fully understood or are dogmatically applied, can be harmful
-more emphasis should be on screening and providing services
-CISM and CISD aren't easily distinguishable
-used as a first resort
Points against the case the Psych Debriefing is Harmful to Trauma Victims
-not intended as sub. for psychotherapy
-when used right, it works
-study confused CISM and CISD--they're different!
-not recommended until several weeks after incident
Points supporting that Blocked and Recovered Memories are Valid Phenomena
-recognized for 2 centuries in soldiers, holocaust, child abuse victims
-DSM mentions it's definition
-people unlikely to form fast traumatic memories
-little support of "false memory syndrome"
Points against Blocked and Recovered memories being valid phenomena
-claims emerge from clinical folklore, not empirical studies
-since stress triggers hormones for memory, stressful events should be easier to remember
-false memory syndrome= person creates new identity based on memory
Points supporting Psychologists being able to prescribe medication
-people have urgent unmet needs that can be alleviated by both therapy and meds
-offer more options and better referrals. 85% of psych drugs Rx'd by Drs with no psych training
-military psychs do it successfully
-easier to see one professional, not 2
Points against Psychologists being able to Prescribe meds
-little reason to think psychs would relocate to help needy areas
-some pts more comfortable with PCP, some HMOs only cover meds by PCP
-study with military psychs was only 10 people, hard to generalize that
-why not just improve relations between psychs and MDs?
Points supporting that exposure to media violence promotes violent behavior
-causal relation shown between seeing violent portrayals and expressing subsequent aggression
-longitudinal study shows relation between violence on TV at age 8, aggression at age 18, and violent/criminal acts at age 30
-may cause desensitization to viewers
-lack of adequate context or message that "crime doesn't pay"
Points against the idea that exposure to media violence promotes violent behavior
-violent media= arousing, =activities performed more strongly
-longitudinal and cross-national studies produce more non-support than support
-not meant to represent morals, just entertainment
-little or no evidence of desensitization occurring
-may be real-world violence, not fake, that people imitate
Points supporting that Divorce is Always detrimental to children
-kids experience more singular trauma, instability can have cumulative effects
-permanently alters lives of kids
-live in fear that they will repeat parent's mistakes
-develop more slowly
-doesn't always make kids happier than when parents were together
Points AGAINST the idea that divorce is always detrimental to children
-if parent is stable, there are no/less unstable effects
-effects not irreversible
-individuals greatly influence their own future
-some children emerge from divorce more resilient and mature
-some contend that life IS better after the divorce
Describe "Bill" and his symptoms/disorder
-homeless man in Amherst
-musically talented
-dresses inappropriately for weather
-goes around streets picking up trash (putting order into his world)
Describe "Andrew" and his symptoms/disorder
-3 Martians followed him everywhere
-treated with Thorozine, developed Tardive diskinesia of facial muscles
-drank insectiside to kill "bugs crawling inside him"
-LSD: stress to his diathesis (dad had schizo.)
What is the concordance rate of schizophrenia in identical twins? What does this show about the nature of the disease?
-shows the biopsychosocial explanation, not guaranteed to develop disorder
Describe "Derek" and his symptoms/disorder
-crying in waiting room, in t-shirt and disheveled
-"going crazy" since Dec. 10th, when he tried to sleep with an old coach
-"can't get clean"
-sees men after him when he's stressed
-brief psychotic disorder, marked stressors
Describe "Edward" and his symptoms/disorder
-locked self in bedroom while packing for school
-"impostor syndrome"= got somewhere in life by mistake, hadn't earned it
-adjustment disorder w/mixed anxiety and depressed mood
Describe "Ben" and his symptoms/disorder
-came to Halgin and wanted test batteries
-IQ too normal, tests seemed exaggerated
-given WAIS-III, Thematic Aperception Test (TAT), MMPI
Describe "Arthur" and his symptoms/disorder
-sat near doors in Mahar
-scared of staying in apartment alone, went to HoJo and slept with machete until roommates came home
-scared of blood pressure being taken
-examples of classical conditioning: associate alone & BP with grandad dying
-treated with counterconditioning, systematic desensitization
Describe "Ted" and his symptoms/disorder
-arms became paralyzed one day
-pissed that Drs didn't know what they were doing
-liked to dress in women's clothing for comfort (paralysis= "can't even dress myself")