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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the three main duties of journalism in a democracy?
1)to act as a rigorous watchdog of the powerful
2)to distinguish truth from lies.
3)to present a wide range of informed positions on key issues.
What is News?
Current information for the public that focuses more on what is interesting rather than what is important.
What are the two flaw's of contemporary journalism?
1)reliance on official sources.
2)avoidance of contextualization (the news is presented as a series of short, isolated events which are difficult to assemble into a big picture.
What is selecting some aspects of a perceived reality and making them more salient in a communication context, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatment recommendation for the item described?
Framing
What are the three points of the social protest frame?
1)Emphasis on violence or other deviant actions.
2)Story takes the perspective of power holders
3)Reporter invokes public opinion to suggest that protesters are an isolated minority.
Name the four effects of social protest frame on audience:
1)More critical of and less likely to identify with protesters.
2)Less critical of police
3)Less supportive of protesters free speech rights
4)Lower estimates of protest's effetiveness, social support and newsworthiness.
the journalistic bias that gives preference to individual actors and human interest angles in events, while downplaying social, historical and political forces that provide the context for those events. (often results in blaming the victim)
Personalization (aka: the fundamental attribution error)
What is episodic framing of news events?
Focuses on the individual case; psychological causes of the event.
What is thematic framing of news events?
Focuses on structural variables; social, econdomic and historic causes of the event.
What are the results of laboratory experiments that show subjects either episodic or thematic stories on the same topic?
Episodic stories encourage the personal attributions; thematic stories encourage the attributions to social forces.
These are a form of social influence by which public opinion is constructed.
Public opinion surveys
Politics is an investment opportunity for big business, which pays off many times over after the election.
The investment theory of politics
lack of trust in political leaders. (and the majority of strategic frame on TV news encourages this)
cynicism
What are the two consequences of the Investment Theory of Politics?
1) Economically important issues are not permissible campaign topics.
2)Difference between the two political parties is reduced; only a small segment of the political spectrum (the right side) is represented.
What are the four subgroups of frames for political campaign and news...and what are the ten frames?
A.)FRAMES ABOUT POLITICS (2)
1. strategic (most frequent)
2. public opinion
B.)FRAMES ABOUT PROCESSES (2)
1. media process
2. political process
C.)FRAMES ABOUT PERSONALITY 2
1. personal character
2. "non-events" (scandals)
D.) FRAMES ABOUT IDEAS
1. issues
2. ideology
3. prospective
4. retrospective
Campaign advertising was effective in.....
influencing voter preference. (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
Campaign ads were most effective for....
people with low interest in politics. (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
Negative ads were overwhelmingly more...
effective than positive ads. (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
Negative ads were most effective for...., and second most effective for....
Republicans.....independents (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
Negative ads worked better for .....than for...... candidates.
Republican....Democratic (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
Exposure to a negative v. a positive ad, results in a 5% reduction in....
Self-reported likelihood of voting. (Results of lab experiments on "reaction to television news" with real campaign ads inserted in commercial breaks.)
What are the two purposes of the U.S. foreign and domestic policy?
1) to promote the interests of multinational corporations based in the U.S. and their owners
2) to promote upward redistribution of income, that is, to take wealth from the poor and middle class and give it to the rich.
The theory of democracy assumes....
that people are the best judges of their own interests.
In a well-functioning democratic society, there are two classes of people. What are they?
1)those who think, analyze, and make decisions(specialized class, public men, responsible men)
2)The rest of us, the "bewildered herd" (our function is to be spectators)
When newspapers, schools, etc., must translate the common interest to the public in terms they can understand...
The manufacture of consent
The major problem of gov. is to secure obedience from its main enemy (the domestic population) Name the two ways government does this.
1. Direct orders upported by force
2. Thought control
The less the society relies on force to control its domestic population, the greater the use of sophisticated techniques of thought control.
General Principle
Accomplished through a limited number of means, including fear, deception, diversion and silence.
Thought control
What are the five filters which screen out dissenting information?
1. Ownership
2. Advertising
3. Experts
4. "Flak"
5. Self-censorship
What are Hacker's four types of oppositional readings of the news?
1. Criticism
2. Resistance
3. Challenge
4. Deconstruction