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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Mass media have relatively direct, immediate and substantial effects on attitudes and behavior.
Direct effects model
What does the direct effects model assume? What doubts are there?
Assumes a passive or defenseless audience. People hold this view b/c powerful effects are influenced greatly by the media. Doubts: studies of voting behavior and of public information campaigns.
Mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and suficient cause of audience effects. It reinforces existing attitudes and behavior.
Limited Effects Model
Two-step flow of communications
Mass media communicate to opinion leaders, opinion leaders communicate to the public. ex: doctors and new drugs or medical technology. Medical journals are read by small % of people who communicate it to the rest of the doctors.
What are the uses of the gratifications approach? (hint: there are 7 of them)
1. social and psychological origins 2. needs, which generate 3. expectations of 4. the mass media or other sourcs, which lead to 5. differential patterns of media exposure (or engagement in other activities), resulting in 6. need gratifications and 7. other consequences, perhaps mostly unintended ones.
Mass media influence not what people think but rather what they think about. (media reminds us)
Agenda-setting theory
The degree to which a social or political issue is perceived as important.
By attending to some issues and not other, the media affect the standards by which political leaders are judged.
Distribution of attention given to various issues by the media will match public rankings of the importance of those issues.
Hierarchy approach
The distribution of attention given to a single issue over time will match public rankings of the importance of that issue (with a slight lag).
Longitudinal approach
When the television view of an issue conflicts with social reality. Heavy TV watchers will show greater acceptance of the TV view than light TV watchers.
Cultivation Hypothesis
What are the three aspects of the Mean World Syndrome?
high TV watchers will:
1)overestimate the frequency of crime
2) are more personally fearful of crime
3) Support greater use of force by the police
When cultivation effects are enhanced when the TV view corresponds to social reality.
Example: effect of TV watching on fear of crime is greatest in high crime areas of the city.
The differences among demographic subgroups will be reduced among heavy TV viewers.
What is the deliberate and hostile use of overt force by one individual, and agent, against another individual, a victim.
Interpersonal Violence
What were the results of the National Television Violence Study?
7 violent acts per hour, Premium cable is substantially more likely to contian violence, while public TV is substantially less likely. Movies and Dramas are also more likely to contain violence. (comedies and reality-based programs are less likely)
What are the three effects of televised violence?
1) Aggressive behavior
2) Desensitization (makes us indifferent to pain and suffering of victims and inc. our tolerance of real violence.)
3) Fear- violence cultivates the mean world syndrome.
Name the 10 contextual features of filmed and televised violence:
1)attractiveness of perpetrator
2)attractiveness of victim
6)Consequences of violence
7)Extent and graphicness of violence
8)Presence of weapons
9)Humor accompanying violence
Playing violent video games increases two things:
1) agressive behavior
2) availability of aggressive thoughts
Name the six theoretical explanations for why television increases violence:
1) Imitation
2) Disinhibition
3) Arousal
4) Desensitization
5) Cognitive Priming
6) Scripts
The direct transmission of information about when, why and how to commit aggressive behaviors. (aka: the social learning theory.)
Media violence reduces restraints that would normally cause us to inhibit our aggression impulses.
Violence is exciting and increase physiological arousal, which can spill over and energize real aggressive behavior. (should be temporary)
Each exposure produces progressively less arousal. Indifference to others' suffering may reduce restraints against aggressive behavior.
Media violence increases the availability of aggressive thought in the viewer, and increases the likelihood that some people will act on them.
Cognitive priming
Media portrayals contribute to the formation and maintenanace of agressive behavioral ...(blank)...These are organized knowledge about how to carry out certain activities.
5 High risk composites of violence shown to children:
1)Perpetrator is primary character (good or mixed)
2)Violence is presented as justified
3)No immediate punishment
4)Result of violence is either no harm/pain or shorterm harm/pain
5)Violence can be fantasy oriented or realistic
What are the effects of pornography on aggression?
Violent-pornographic and the violent film produced mroe aggression against the feamle confederate than either the sexually explicit or the control firlm, which did not differ. (Violent porn causes most aggression, significant effect with nonviolent porn, neg. effect on just nudity)
Exposure to violent or nonviolent pornography, male viewers are more likely to:
1) accept rape myths
2) Recommend a less severe punishment for a defendant in hypothetical rape trial
Three types of censorship
Government censorship, Corporate (market) censorship, and Self-censorship
People expect a communication to have a greater harmful effect on others than themselves.
Third-person effect
Restrictions of freedom, or threatened restrictions of freedom, lead to increased attractiveness of the restricted behavior and behavior designed to restore the lost or threatened freedom.
Psychological reactance
Behavior is due to observational learning or modeling.
Social Learning Theory
Once formed, a concept of the typical black, female, etc. guides perceptio, memory and inference.
Role Schema Theory
Heavy viewers are expected to conform to the TV view of reality.
Cultivation Theory
Males are:
Agentic- aggressive, independent, competitive, dominant, ambitious, self-confident, active.
Females are:
Communal- nurturant, affectionate, kind, helpful, sympathetic, love children, etc.
Culture objectifies women's bodies, leading them to take a third person perspective on their own bodies.
Self-objectification theory
2 reults of the self-objectivication theory:
1) Body shame
2) consumption of attention, leading to poorer mental performance.
Media exposure causes men to be dissatisfied with the appearance of their wives or girlfriends.
Contrast effect