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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The number of persons per square unit of space
Two forms of density ?
-Social Density
-Spatial Density
Refers to number of persons in a confined space and usually results in unwanted interactions with people
Social Density
Refers the to the way the physical space itself can feel crowded because it is to small to accommodate even a small number of people
Spatial Density
People reporting not wearing seat-belts because they feel "crowded" by them
Physical constraints
constraints that interfere with the ability to perform tasks
physical constraints
The outcome of any behavioral process that collects animals together in unusually great numbers
-or collecting for its own sake to be "sociable"
Behavioral Sink
Whatever the prevailing mood or circumstance, crowding would intensify it. If people were having a good time, crowding would make them have a better time, if they were bored, crowding would make it more so.
Intensification Hypothesis
A series of problems of interpretation
Ecological Fallacies
Hong Kong tolerates a higher density than the United States, but that both places suffer stress from crowding in the context of their own culture. Thus, culture is a predisposing attribute to crowding that each person within a culture carries as part of that culture.
The Hong Kong Problem
Tend to influence the perception of crowding or lessen its effects
Exp: Personal Control
such as behavioral constraints, tend to try to explain how crowding works its negative effect by interfering with behavior
Three types of predisposing attributes
-prior experience
Setting Conditions Include
-social density
-physical constraints
-animal studies
____________ demonstrated that the perceived crowding in a setting is highly influenced by the way the setting is organized
Order (Wener & Kaminoff (1983)
Mitchell (1971)
These buildings have 10 persons in 400 square ft of space compared with the American Public Health Association recommendation of 85 square ft per person. _____ found no evidence of deficits in emotional health related to density.
Freedman (1975)
-wrote ab book titled "Crowding and Behavior" after doing a series of studies on crowding. Did series of studies in which he placed subjects in crowded conditions to determine whether the crowding would have any effect on the performance of various tasks. Showed no effect.
Divided two groups of Peace Corps volunteers (5 married couples each) into a hotel residence group and another group who lived in a 30 x 30 room. Done over 12 weeks. No change
MacDonald and Oden (1973)
Studied aquanauts under extremely cramped and obtrusive conditions. Everyone sounding like Donald Duck because of the helium atmosphere.
Helmreich (1974)
found that crowded, lower-class children showed higher levels of learned helplessness and were competitive even when this meant they would lose rewards.
Rodin (1976)
Some emphasize the larger populations of an ecosystem or species or human populations in cities or nations
Faris & Dunham (1939)
reviewed 40 selected studies and came to much the same conclusion. Social economic conditions could explain the linkage of crowding with pathology. Proceeded to select two large urban poverty samples, matched them for socioeconomic conditions and moved test group into improved (public) housing from a slum.
Wilner et al. (1962)