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34 Cards in this Set

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Personal Space (Sommer, 1969a)
- changed Personal space to "Emotionally Charged Bubble"
-Studied in public places and seating arrangements (where they'd seat to prevent others from sitting with them.
- invaded personal space to see when person would flee
Proxemics (Hall, 1966)
- used concept called "proxemics" = the study of how people unconsciously structure microspace.
- Made 4 zones (intimate, personal, social and public)
The 4 zones and their distances by (Hall, 1966)
Intimate - (0-18 inch)
Personal - (18inches-4ft)
Social - (4-12ft)
Public - (12-25ft)
Personal Distance (Hall, 1966)
Could use olfactory and temperature cues

Remaining used diminishing oral and visual cues
Intimate Distance (Hall, 1966)
Could use olfactory and temperature cues (and temp only at intimate)

Remaining used diminishing oral and visual cues
Interaction Distances
-Proposed as better term for "personal space"
-related to Hall's proxemics
-suggested by Aiello (1987) bc space btwn 2 or more persons is involved and it's the interaction that defines the space
Kinesics (Birdwhistell, 1970)
-the study of body language
Fight or Flight Distance
-coined by Cannon (1932)& elaborated by Hediger
-described behavior of wild animals he hunted and those he observed.
-the flight distance increased dramatically when the animals were shot at.
Alert Zone
-the first of 2 zones that an approaching figure crossed
-zone where animal became fully alert to approaching figure.
-2nd zone= where animals chose to flee or charge
Invasion of Personal Space
- sommer did study (at what point the person would flee an intruder
-(Young and Guile) women=shorter latencies of deptarture when space invaded by low-status intruders (regardless of sex)
-females invade personal space of short people more then males.
Personal Space (Sommer, 1969a)
- changed Personal space to "Emotionally Charged Bubble"
-Studied in public places and seating arrangements (where they'd seat to prevent others from sitting with them.
- invaded personal space to see when person would flee
Proxemics (Hall, 1966)
- used concept called "proxemics" = the study of how people unconsciously structure microspace.
- Made 4 zones (intimate, personal, social and public)
The 4 zones and their distances by (Hall, 1966)
Intimate - (0-18 inch)
Personal - (18inches-4ft)
Social - (4-12ft)
Public - (12-25ft)
Personal Distance (Hall, 1966)
Could use olfactory and temperature cues

Remaining used diminishing oral and visual cues
Intimate Distance (Hall, 1966)
Could use olfactory and temperature cues (and temp only at intimate)

Remaining used diminishing oral and visual cues
Flannel Figures
-developed by Kuethe (1962)
- flanel figures placed on flannel background in imitation of real life settings
Hall (1966)
-hired by U.S State Dept
- discovered prime sources of misunderstandings that occured when Germans and Japanese tried to talk with Americans was the distance at which conversation took place.
-elaborated concept into "proxemics"
Sommer (1969a)
-redefined personal space distance as "the emotionally charged bubble of space which surrounds each individual.
Birdwhistell (1970)
-kinesics research
-a choreography that is learned with the language
-bilinguals moved closer when going from Spanish to English and sprang apart going from English to Spanish.
Hayduk (1983)
- agree that bubble concept is misleading
-interactive space is flexible, mutually adjustable and situationally influenced
-are language aspects not sufficiently explored by research.
Higashiyama and Ono (1988)
-propose that Japanese interpersonal distances are determined by the Japanese words (koko, soko, and asoko) which designate spaces between speakers.
Finighan (1980)
- studied 225 householders and found values of privacy to be similar regardless of family stage or income.
Goldsmith and Hill (1986)
- found that a families home space affects their behavior according to a framework of access to dimensions of space in the home ( who has access to what space has large influence of family behavior)
Caplan and Goldman (1981)
-found that females invade the personal space of short people more then males
-"everything changes for short people"
Sussman and Rosenfeld (1982)
-measured dist. btwn bilingual subjects and found they sprang apart from Spanish to English but moved closer from English to spanish
Strube and Werner (1983)
- say the distance is greater from others when one wishes to avoid control by others
-(no relationship btwn interpersonal distance and size of personal space)
Latane and Nida (1981)
-reviewed 10 years of studies of helping behavior and conclude best chance of being helped is when there is only one person present.
-adding one more person begins dilution of responsibility
Hern (1991)
- reports how the court, in deciding to station demonstrators outside abortion clinic, listened to the advice of no less a person then Edward T. Hall b4 deciding to keep demonstrators far enough away to they would not interfere with the social distance of persons going in clinic.
Argyle and Dean (1965)
-first to propose a dynamic theory of equilibrium
Smith and Knowles (1978)
-describe how an invader is rated negatively and then specific intentions are attributed to him or her.
Smith and Knowles (1978)
-describe how an invader is rated negatively and then specific intentions are attributed to him or her.
Hediger (1955)
-described the behavior of wild animals he hunted and those he observed in captivity.
-noticed he could approach birds and animals fairly closely before shotting at them but after firing, the birds/animals gave him a much wider berth.
Kunzendorff and Denney (1982)
-measured intruders as stopping farther away from smokers than non-smokers.
-found number of packs smoked per day correlated with a desire for more personal space.
Winkel et al. (1988)
- documented that police interpret defensive behavior that occurs when such space is invaded as expression of being a true suspect of whatever crime is the subject of the interrogation