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15 Cards in this Set

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What is the Hebb rule?
The hypothesis that the cellular basis of learning (especially C.C.) involves strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the postsynaptic neuron fires.
What is LTP?
Long-term potentiation. A long term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated high-frequency activity at that synapse. Believed to explain some of the physical changes which accompany learning.
How is the occurance of LTP in the hippocampus important?
Very important for relational learning (and episodic in particular).
What is relational learning?
Type of learning which involves learning the relationships among individual stimuli. Interconnections within different areas of the brain (touch, sight, smell, sound, etc).
What is episodic learning?
A type of relational learning where one remembers sequences of events (episodes) that they witnessed, requires us to keep track of order of events.
What is the Entorhinal cortex (input) and why is it important?
A region of the limbic cortex that provides the major source of input to the hippocampal formation.
What is the Dentate gyrus?
Part of the hippocampal formation; receives inputs from the entorhinal cortex and projects to the field CA3 of the hippocampus.
What is CA3?
Part of the hippocampus; receives inputs from the dentate gyrus and projects to field CA1.
What is necessary for LTP to occur?
Calcium channels must open and so it can enter the cell. Calcium influx is necessary for LTP because the calcium acts as a second messenger and activates kinases (which are enzymes- especially CaM-KII that make cellular changes.
What are the pre- and post-synaptic changes involved in LTP?
-Pre-synaptically LTP results in more glutamate release.
-Post synaptically LTP results in more post-synaptic receptors and a larger active zone.
-So overall the communication between the pre-and post synaptic neuron is stronger.
What is responsible for the increases in synaptic strength that occur during long-term potentiation?
Research indicates that stregthening of an individual synaps appears to be accomplished by insertion of additional AMPA receptors
What are the four major regions of the hippocampus?
CA1, CA3, Dentate Gyrus and Entorhinal Cortex
What is CaM-KII?
An enzyme that must be activated by calcium; may play a role in the establishment of long term potentiation.
What is LTD?
long-term depression. A long term decrease in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by stimulation of the terminal button while the postsynaptic membrane is hyperpolarized or only slightly depolariced.
What is anterograde amnesia?
Amnesia for events that preceded some disturbance to the brain, such as a head injury or electoconvulsive shock.