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15 Cards in this Set

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Q: What is a long-term decrease in the excitability of a neuron to a particular input?
LTD or long term depression.
Q: What has to have happened in order for LTD to take place?
•Input was particularly weak or low frequency

•Input happened when post-syn. neuron was hyperpolarized.
Q: Depending on the functioning of the NMDA receptors, what can result from LTD?
•Decreased AMPA receptors
•Decreased GLU output from pre-synapse
Q: What is perceptual short-term memory?
Percieving the object, holding it in STM, able to respond to it. Tested in humans and non-humans (delayed activity continues through delay)
Q: What is delayed matching-to-sample task?
A task that requires the subject to indicate which of several stimuli has just been perceived. A subject is shown a stimulus (the sample) and then after a delay the subject must indicate which of several alternatives show to them is the same as the sample.
Q: What have functional imaging studies revealed about retention of specific types of short term memory?
Functioning imaging studies have shown that retention of specific types of short-term visual memories involves activity of specific regions of the visual association cortex, the fusiform face area and the parahippocampal place area. These are responsible for recognition of faces and places.
Q: What is retrograde amnesia?
Loss of memory for events before the injury.
Q: What is anterograde amnesia?
Loss of memory for events after the injury. Usually if patients has antero, they also have retro.
Q: What do patients with bilateral damage to Hippocampus appear to have problems with in terms of memory?
Consolodation from STM to LTM.
Q: In terms of consolidation and episodic memory, what two areas of the brain are most important?
Limbic cortices & Hippocampus.
Q: Long term depression results in a long term _____ in excitability.
Decrease
Q: What are the two types of LTD?
If we are talking about a synapse that has already been potentiated, a decrease could bring us back to normal. If we are talking about a synapse that was not potentiated then it could then be suppressed below normal. So… back down to normal or below normal.
Q: What are situations that can lead to LTD?
When the input, or pre-synaptic neuron is firing at a particularly low rate, very slow or minor small input or frequency, OR that input might have been of decent size but the post-synaptic neuron was hyperpolarized, or at a period where it could not be reactive at that
Q: high frequency stimulation from the pre-synaptic neuron will result in ___?
LTP, easier epsp’s.
Q: If we have low frequency stimulation, or a low rate of firing from the pre-synaptic neuron, then we see ____?
LTD harder to achieve epsp’s than normal