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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Kamin say was necessary for learning?
"You only learn when you're surprised"
When did Rescolar and Wagner develop their model?
1970
What formula is used to define surprise?
lambda -Vt
(US strength minus ability of CS to expect US)
Entire Rescolar-Wagner Equation
deltaV(CS) = alpha(CS)xBeta(lambda-Vt)
Alpha represents...
salience of the CS, learning parameter of CS
Beta represents...
learning parameter for the US
What does the V mean?
associatve strenght of the CS (to the US); degree to which you expect the US given a CS

delta V is the change in V
lambda means...
degree to which a particular US can support learning, physical magnitude of the US
How do you calculate Vt (Vtotal)?
add the value of all the cSs together
What does delta V tell you?
what is learned in that particular trial
When Vtotal = lambda....
NO LEARNING B/C NO SURPRISE

so learning stops when Vtotal is equal to lambda
In overshadowing what symbol tells you about the difference in salience for the CSs?
The respective alpha of each CS, one will be decidedly bigger than the other
How much do we learn in the first phase of an extinction trial?
negative alpha x beta
What is the name of the theory that addresses why we are motivated to learn Pavlovian relationships?
Schull's Conditioned Opponent Theory
What did Schull say the US elicits?
a process
What does Schull say the CS begins to elicit over time?
b process or the compensatory response to a process
According the Schull when do we learn CR?
when there is a large discrepancy between a process and b process
According to Schull, what is the reason for why we don't learn in the second phase of a blocking experiment?
the minimal discrepancy (a-b) and 0 undermines the US's capacity to support learning
According to Schull, what do we learn in extinction?
the b process becomes too strong, we need to attenuate the b-process and so we extinquish the CR
What are the 2 limitations of Schull's theory?
1:
2: Behavioral consequences of US and CS opposite, but emotional consequences the same
Sometimes Opponent Process Theory
Alan Wagner: CR will be the same as after-reaction elicited by US
Kandel and Pavlovian Conditioning in Aplysia
Pairing Specific Enhanced Sensitization demonstrated in Aplysia and Conditioning
CS-: touching the mantle shelf
CS+:touching the siphon
US: shock
Adenylyl cyclase fxns as coincidence detector
What is one cellular mechanisn that might be involved in Pavlovian conditioning?
LTP!!
What is associability?
being able to associate stimuli through neural pathways
Weak and Strong input for LTP in terms of Conditioning
CS: weak input
US: strong input
In LTP, the neuron that genereates the UR is...
Postsynaptic Sensory Neuron
What happens after LTP induction?
The CS weak input that showed no or little response before is now associated with the US strong input because the firing of neurons at the same time overthrew the threshold so that the CS weak input show a strong response too
What part of the brain forms explicit memories?
Hippocampus
What are explicit memories?
conscious memories such as memorizing lists names facts
What part of the brain is important for the formation of emotional memories?
amygdala
What are implicit memories?
unconscious memories
What are the 4 ways we can work out what different brain regions do?
1. Destroy the region
2. Temporarily inactivate the region
3. Activate the region
4. look for correlated activity in different structures during learning tasks
What is the problem with electronic lesions to discover what a part of the brain does?
hard to interpret findings because damage is also done to fibers of pasage
What is the advantage of neurochemical lesions to destroy areas of the brain?
destroys the cell bodies without harming the fibers of passage
What is the problem with trascranial magnetic stimulation to inactivate an area of the brain?
its a new technology and can only be done with a course resolution (1 cm3)
What is the problem with using the MRIs or PET scans to work out what brain regions can do?
correlations do not equal causations
What part of the brain produces (and learn about) conditioned fear response?
Ventral Preaqueductal Gray (PAG)
What part of the brain produces unconditioned fear responses?
Dorsolateral Preaqueductal Gray (PAG)
What part of the brain regulates whether conditioned or unconditioned responses are displayed?
amygdala
What besides explicit memory is the hippocampus important for?
relational learning
What part of the brain is necessary for the delayed eye blink conditioning?
Cerebellum
What part of the brain is needed for trace eye blink conditioning?
Hippocampus
What does Kanzi use to communicate?
used a lexigram machine for words
In human yrs what level of lingo ability does Kanzi display?
2.5 yr old child
Who raised Gua?
Kelloggs
What was the primary criticism of Washoe?
Terrace thought she might be cued later disproven
How many signs did Washoe learn?
151
Why did the earliest studies on chimpanzees talking fail?
The researchers did not take into account that chimps don't have anatomy to vocally demostrate human words
Who taught Sarah to use magnetic symbols for communication?
Premack
What could Sarah do?
she could understand abstract concepts like bigger and smaller
What was the primary criticism of Sarah?
Terrace: she was just using sequences with the tokens not actually understanding the words
Who was Tamuli?
Kanzi's sister and the control ape for that research
Why didn't she learn to use the lexicon?
She had not been raised be the researchers like Kanzi and therefor had little to no experience with the Lexicon
How did Savage-Rumbaugh prove Kanzi was not cued?
Wore a welder's mask, gave commands from another room, had different voices give commands, had headphones on so she couldn't hear words while with Kanzi
What types of tool use do chimpanzees display?
termite fishing, hammering nuts open, tooth brushing, spear hunting
Do chimpanzees emulate or imitate?
They do both!
Tool Use By Nonprimate species
Spear hunting (New Caledonian crow/ the woodpecker finch)
Snail cracking with stones (thrush)
Stones to open eggs (Vultures)
Stones for clams (otters)
Moss to absorb water (fire ants)
Do nonhuman species display culture?
Whiten et al 1999 demonstrates that primates do
so YES
How did Whiten demonstrate culture in chimpanzees?
Whiten et al. (1999) showed that 39 different behavior patterns were customary or habitual in some chimpanzee communities but were absent in others.
Imitation
Mimicry
emulation
Learns about the results of actions, rather than details of the behavior involved
Whiten and Researchers in Bastrop (MD Anderson)
Had 2 sbj groups: Black and White
each group shown one foraging method via observation of leader chimp
the groups imitated leader chimp
Do other nonhuman species understand cause effect relationships?
Yes
Examples: Orangatang and Peanut obstacle, Crows and Food Traps, Dogs and String task
Who developed the Perceptual-defensive Recuperative model?
Bolles and Angelo
What type of conditioning does LTP work with?
Simultaneous and Delayed
does not work for backwards
When do chimps emulate behavior?
When they understand cause and effect relationships in the scenario
the chimp exp with the opaque and transparent food box