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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
Drive-Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a constant and balanced internal state;
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then physiological needs become active
Set Point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
Basal Metabolic Rate
the body's resting rate of expenditure
Sexual Response cycle
the four stages of sexual response described by Masters and Johnson: 1. Excitement, 2. Plateau, 3. Orgasm, 4. Resolution
Refractory Period
a resting period after orgasm, in which a man cannot have another orgasm
Sexual Disorder
a problem that continually impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Achievement Motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; attaining a high standard
James Lange Theory
The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotional stimuli
Cannon Bard Theory
an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers 1. physiological responses and 2.The subjective experience of emotion
Two-factor theory
Schacter's theory that to experience emotion one must be physical aroused and able to cognitively label that arousal
emotional release
Adaptation Level Phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds,of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
process by which we perceive and respond to certain events called stressors that appraise as threatening or challeneging
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
Attribution Theory
Fundamental Attribution Error
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Foot in the Door Phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Information Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not tasks that are difficult or not mastered
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion with a group
Group think
the mode of thinking that occurs wen the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Diffusion of Responsibility
the more people around the less likely someone will help, Darley and Latane 68'
beliefs and feelings that predisposes one to repond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration-Aggression Principle
frustration of an attempt to achieve some goals causes aggression