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28 Cards in this Set

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AgRP (agouti-related peptide)
inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the areas of the hypothalamus that regulate feeding
anorexia nervosa
condition characterized by unwillingness to eat, severe weight loss, and sometimes death
arcuate nucleus
hypothalamic area with one set of neurons sensitive to hunger signals and another sensitive to satiety signals
bulimia nervosa
condition characterized by alternation between dieting and overeating
carnivore
meat eater
cholecystokinin (CKK)
hormone released by the duodenum in response to food distention
conditioned taste aversion
learned avoidance of a food whose consumption is followed by illness
cytokines
chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors
duodeum
part of the small intestine adjoining the stomach; the first part of the digestive system that absorbs food
ghrelin
chemical released by stomach during food deprivation; also released as a neurotransmitter in the brain, where it stimulates eating
glucagon
pancreatic hormone that stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose
herbivore
animals that eat plants
homeostasis
tendency to maintain a variable, such as temperature, within a fixed range
insulin
pancreatic hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into the cells
lactase
enzyme necessary for lactose metabolism
lactose
the sugar in milk
lateral hypothalamus
area of the hypothalamus that is important for the control of eating and drinking
lateral preoptic area
portion of the hypothalamus that includes some cells that facilitate drinking and some that inhibit it, as well as passing axons that are important for osmotic thirst
leptin
peptide released by fat cells; tends to decrease eating, partly by inhibiting release of neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus
melanocortin
type of chemical that promotes satiety in the hypothalamus
neuropeptide Y (NPY)
peptide found in the brain, especially the hypothalamus; it inhibits activity of the paraventricular nucleus and thereby increases meal size
omnivore
animals that eat both meat and plants
paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
area of the hypothalamus in which activity tends to limit meal size and damage leads to excessively large meals
preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH)
brain area important for temperature control
set point
level at which homeostatic processes maintain a variable
sham feeding
procedure in which everything that an animal swallows leaks out a tube connected to the esophagus or stomach
sodium-specific hunger
enhanced preference for salty tastes during a period of sodium deficiency
ventromedial hypothalamus
region of the hypothalamus in which damage leads to faster stomach emptying and increased secretion of insulin