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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
-“the power of the situation”
social psychology and the power of the situation
-baseline: 65%
(shock to 450 volts)
-Does obedience go up or down if
-the subject (teacher) has to force the learner’s hand onto a shock plate?
- 30%
-The subjects (teachers) are women?
-65%
-The experimenter tells the subject (teacher) to stop shocking and the learner demands to be shocked?
-0%
-Two peers (confederates) rebel?
-10%
-A peer administers the shocks while the subject(teacher) does administrative tasks?
-93%
(miligram obedience experients)
basic paradigm
-conformity appears to be higher in collectivist cultures
oVariations on the paradigm (e.g., forcing hand on shockplate, two peers rebel, etc.)
-allocating responsibility to the authority
-routinizing the task
-wanting to be polite
-entrapment (foot-in-the-door)
why people obey
Subjects who obeyed to 450 volts are not sadistic (fundamental attribution error)
Most people believe that they themselves would disobey
Obedience in the real world (e.g., Holocaust)
Ethical issues
lessons of the obedience experiements
wanted to know what would happen if ordinary college students were randomly assigned to the roles of prisoners and guards
stanford prison study
the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other peoples behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition
attribution theory
the tendency, in explaining one's own behavior, to take credit for one's good actions and rationalize one's mistakes
self serving bias
the tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
fundamental attribution error
the notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served, that bad people are punished and good people rewarded
just world hypothesis
a belief about people, groups, ideas, or acitivities
attitude
we are aware of them, they shape our conscious decisions and actions and they can be measured on self-report questionaires
explicit attitude
we are unaware of them, they may influence our behavior in ways we do not recognize, and they are measured in various indirect ways
implicit attitude
the tendency of people to feel more positice toward a person, item, product, or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it.
familiarity effect
the tendency of people to believe that a statement is true of valid simply because it has been repeated many times
validity effect
often used to try to persuade people to quit smoking, drive only when sober, use condoms, check for signs of cancer, and nowadays prepare for terrorist attack
fear
an effective way of brainwashing.
-the person is put under physical or emotional stress
-the persons problems are reduced to one simple explanation, which is repeatedly emphasized.
coercive persuasion
wanted to know what people would do when a group unamimously contradicted an obvious fact. He found that when people made the line comparisons on their own, they were almost always accurate.
Asch conformity study
the tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement
groupthink
in groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own indiviuality
deindividuation
in crowds, when someone is in trouble, individuals oftern fail to take action, or call for help because they assume tht someone many years ago, a woman named Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death in a crowded street
bystander effect
in work groups, the diffusion of responsibility
social loafing
a summary impression of a group, in which a perons believes that all memers of the group share a sommon trait or traits (positive, negative, or neutral)
stereotype
a strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group, based on a negative stereotype.
prejudice
whites disguise their animosity toward black individuals by claiming they are concerned only about social issues such as "reverse discrimination"
symbolic racism
some investigators observe how people behave when they are with a possible object of prejdice. some indiciuals sit farther away then they normally would or reveal other nonverbal signs of discomfort
measures of behavior
some social pychologists have joined forces with neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists to develop a new specialty called social neuroscience. stdy which parts of the brain are involved in all kinds of social psychological processes including stereotypes
physiological changes in the brain (amygdala)
based on the assumption that people are often unaware of their own negative associations with a target group
unconscious associations