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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Stress
Caused by event appraised (we construe it) as exceeding one’s resources
4 sources of stress
Major life events
Could be positive or negative (first thing that come to mind might be negative…positive events, if they seem to demand more than give, could be stressors)
Microstressors
Little things that add up..long bus ride, stubbing toe
Rumination
Dwelling on negative events..not just experiencing it once, but reliving it in mind..increase stress
(Low) perceived control
Not feeling like you have control or status or ability to shape world around you..construing that you have long of control
Primary appraisal
Challenge? Threat? Harm/loss?
Secondary appraisal
Do I have the resources to cope?
More about appraisals
Different than emotion..how we construe an event exposed to..how we look at it relevant to our goals
Secondary is whether I can handle it or not..whether you actually experience stress..if do not appraise situation with resources that I can handle, I will feel stress..why two different people can experience a situation differently
Attributions
Explanatory Style
A person’s habitual way of explaining things
3 dimensions of explanatory styles
Internal v external
Stable v unstable
Stable v unstable, always be that way or not always bad..or one time mistake
Global v specific
Global affects whole life
3 dimensions of pessimistic explanatory style for failure
Internal, stable, global
Health consequences of stress
Effects of cortisol release
Short-term
Heart rate, blood pressure, immune system
Chronic
ulcers, heart disease, cancer, memory loss, rapid aging
Pessimism predicts poorer health
Low perceived status
Heart & lung disease, arthritis, neurological disorders
Implementation intentions
Specificity is key!
When, where, how?
Key to actually accomplishing goals (when, where and how going to accomplish it)..more likely to be achieved experimentally

Paper-Writing Study (Gollwitzer & Brandstatter, 1997)
Implementation intentions condition: “Specify when and where you intend to write the report.”
No implementation intentions (control) condition
Results?
Results of implementation intention study
Took less time to complete goal of report and way more likely to get it done if specific
4 stress buffers
Optimism buffers us!
Perceived control
Nursing home study
E.g., Implementation intentions
Social connections
Distancing instead of ruminating
Stuff about expressive writing
Distancing! Ruminating is not helpful..reliving negative event over and over is not happy..distancing: take yourself away from the situation, observe…3rd person point of view…good for thinking about past events and future events…expressive writing is one way to do it for the future
Stuff about Ramirez test of expressive writing
4 studies in this…3 and 4 are more relevant
3 and 4 kind of combined
Randomly assigned people who were about to take same test…expressive writing or control…9th graders take bio…one group says write about worries of test about to take and the other half are told to write about something unrelated…manipulated stuff and looked for differences but didn’t manipulate test anxiety

Added arrows to see differences…solid line is the writers, dotted was the control…didn’t matter for low anxiety.
But the stressed out people had a huge jump after intervention…know the gist of all outside articles, generally what they found and important variables..dont need to know explicit variables
Affective Forecasting
Predicting how we will feel during or after a particular event in the future
Impact bias
overestimate the length or the intensity of future feeling states
Overestimate how happy lottery money would make you feel
Immune neglect
underestimate our resilience during negative life events
Focalism
focus on only one aspect of an experience or event when trying to predict future emotions
With lottery, all thinking about winning the money (focused on this one aspect) but then whole rest of life continues to move on..social relationships, microstressors, other stuff..fail to account on other events
Cars too..equally miserable with nice or bad car being stuck in traffic..dampen happiness
3 reasons why bad at predicting emotions
Impact bias, immune neglect, focalism
Dunn reading stuff! look over this..prosocial spending
What was their hypothesis?
Spending money on somebody else makes you happier than spending money on yourself
How did they support it across 3 studies?
Correlational? Experimental?
Correlational: people how much they spend (1)..self report how much spent each year on different categories..divided it on things for self and then for others (but maybe people who are happier like spending on others)
Study 2: unexpected bonuses..what do you do with new unexpected money?
Study 3: EXPERIMENTAL: gave people money and split up to spend on others or spend on selves..randomly assigned…manipulated variable of spending on self or spending on others
Evaluate studies’ internal and external validity
Strongest internal (3) because had independent variable
Strongest external (1 and 2)..real people with actual money in actual lives
What predicted happiness?
Prosocial spending (being told) made you report being more happy..amount of money did not matter (experimental)…amount of money doesn’t affect anything but it matters what we do with it
Take-home point?
Spend on other people..tell people that it is also better to do it this way