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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Specific testable directional prediction
Prediction about how variables relate to e/o..or about the conditions under which an event should occur
Explicit, directional, testable
Organized set of principles that are used to explain everyday phenomenon
Big and less specific
taking a conceptual variable and turning it into operational..operational is specific way measure in a study
To operationalize is also to construct ______
Descriptive research
also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when, "why" and how...
Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity.
Correlational research
Hypothesis would look at certain changes in the other
Hypothesis looks at correlation coefficients which range from negative 1 to +1 and vary in magnitude

Collect data and ask people for attitudes and behaviors as they are naturally occurring and see how relate to each other..random selection still important

Correlation does not prove causation

Some questions cannot be looked at experimentally..look at things as they are without…cannot get causality but can manipulate
Experimental research
Cause and effect relationship between two variables
Why can we only get causality from experimental? We have an independent and dependent variable..independent does this..it is manipulated..whatever concept we think causes a change in some outcome, we turn it into operational variable and we decide which groups receive it and which groups don’t..who is exposed and who is not exposed..only thing that differs between two groups

I think good moods increases note-taking..only thing is different is independent variable..how do I know nothing else is different? Random assignment

Difference between random selection and assignment: Selection is of every person in pop to be in study
Assignment is if in study already, equal chance in being in one or another

Adv and dis: Prove causality if done properly!
Dis: some things shouldn’t be manipulated..external validity (does what she do in the lab extend beyond the lab?)..hard to do also
Internal validity
has to do with the accuracy of the results. Results could be inaccurate if samples are not selected randomly.
External validity
External validity has to do with the generalizability of the findings to the population. If the sample selected is only Hispanics under the age of 25, then it would be hard to generalize the results to the entire US population.
Ethics stuff
Come up in every stage of psychological research..doing harm? Serious ethical problems
Does still happen..harm to participant, breed mistrust..if people expect deception, they will stop believing what you are saying in general

Ethical guidelines above

IRB says the benefit has to outweigh the cost..participants also required to receive informed consent..deception still occurs and that is why we have debriefings