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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is social support?
Emotional and practical help from others that protects us from stress and bolsters us.
What are the sources of social support?
Social Network.
What is a social convoy?
A social network that changes in size and composition over time - similar to Sullivan's idea.
Who pioneered the attachment theory?
John Bowlby.
What are the components of the attachment theory?
emotional (regulation); social (communication) and cognitive (ability to learn from others);
From what perspective did Bowlby view attachment?
An abnormal perspective.
From what perspective did Konrad Lorenz view attachment?
From an animal behavior perspective.
In the experiments with the monkeys, what effects did those monkeys who were raised in isolation demonstrate?
Emotional and social impairment;
What were the effects on premature babies who were not rocked during infancy?
Less weight gain and overall less improvement.
What was a key component to John Bowlby's attachment theory?
The internal working model - representation of relationships with people that is modelled after the first relationship an infant has in life;
What are the four types of attachment from the Strange Situation Task?
Secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized
What is social referencing?
Infants monitor companion's emotional reactions and use information to decide how they should feel and behave;
What helps attachment form between parent and child?
contact comfort, rocking, development of synchronized routines;
What might cause disorganized attachment?
If that parent is unable to bond with a children because of psychopathy.
What is a secure base?
When the infant uses the adult as a point to explore from and a place to return to if they feel threatened;
What does Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation test not take into account?
Cultural variation.
What does Mary Ainsworth's test evaluate?
The degree of stranger anxiety from which an infant suffers.
What are the benefits of secure attachment?
Social leaders, curious, self directed, emotional regulation.
What are some characteristics of insecure attached children?
Stressed out, suspicious, distrustful;
What percentage of 1 year old's are securely attached?
60 to 65%;
What are the four stages of infant attachment?
- undiscriminating social responsiveness
- discriminating social responsiveness
- actively seeking proximity
- goal-corrected partnership
What does an infant's ability to attach to another adult depend on?
Their cognitive development - must have achieved person permanance - a type of object permanence; their temperment; and caregiver's behavior is the most important;
What are the effects of preschool?
Some adjustment problems in grade 6, but better language skills by gratde 5; PARENTING QUALITY IS MOST IMPORTANT;
What must be taken into account when thinking of "kangaroo care" for young infants?
child needs to be physically healthy enough to deal with wearing diper and a hat and have contact comfort;
How can we study the effects of early attachment?
Studying social deprivation; the longer Romanian orphans were left in socially deprived settings, the more likely they were to show abnormal patterns of insecure attachment;
What did Mildred Parten find about play between the ages of 2 and 5?
Play becomes increasingly social ;
What is used to assess peer acceptance and popularity?
Sociometrics techniques - physical attractiveness and social competance;
What is the diffference between a crowd and a clique?
A crowd is a collection of several heterosexual cliques, which are small same-sex friendship groups;
What is the socioemotional selectivity theory:
Shrinking social networks of aging adults as a choice to better meet their emotional needs;
What are chumships?
close friendships with peers of the same sex that emerge around the age of 9; Sullivan;
According to Carroll Izard, when do self-conscious emotions develop?
18 months of age;
What is the brain basis of moral reasoning?
It exists in the frontal lobe, where emotion areas exist, and therefore, there is greater emphasis on emotional reasoning and less logic when a personal situation is invovled; the logical component is not always as effective as it could be;
What is a downfall of Kohlberg's take on moral development?
He did not consider emotion in his theories; too much emphasis on cognition;
What is some evidence for the usage of emotion in decision making?
- patients with prefrontal damage frequently engage in highly immoral behaviors with no remorse;
- individuals with anti-social personality disorder: reduced autonomic responses to socially stressful tasks;
What is the moral state of babies?
They are thought to be amoral.
What were the stages of Piaget's theory regarding moral reasoning?
1) premoral period: preeschool years; can't be considered moral beings as do not understand rules;
2)heteronmous morality: ages 6-10; take rules seriously; see rules as sacred and unalterable;
3)autonomous: ages 10/11; pay more attention to the consensus of individuals and to intentions of a person;
What were Kohlberg's views on moral development?
1) preconventional stage: conforms to rules to avoid punishment or gain rewards;
2) conventional stage: conform to rules from authority to maintain social order;
3) postconventional stage: conform to self-generated beliefs on larger world values;
What did Albert Bandura believe about moral behavior?
Moral behavior is strongly influenced by situational factors;
What is moral disengagement?
Avoiding condemnng ourselves when we engage in immoral behavior;
What is the reseach regarding fairness illustrate?
Children with three choices: consensus, majority rules and authority figures; judgements on fairness are context-specific; older children are capable of metacognition;
What is Ken Dodge's information processing model?
The skills involved in carrying out steps of social information processing improve with age;
What does Dodge's information processing model relate to?
Anti-social behavior in adolescents;
According to Elliot Turiel, what are the two kinds of rules in daily life?
Moral rules (standards that focus on welfare and basic rights), and social-conventional rules (standards that are determined by social consensus);
According to Hoffman, what helps to nurture morality?
Induction: explaining why a behavior is wrong and how it affects others;
In the adolescent years, what occurs in terms of moral development?
The adolescent is increasingly motivated to behave morally;
What is the biopsychosocial model?
Proposed by Dodge and Pettit; moral development comes from the interaction between biology, psychology and social experiences;
What are two most important factors in the adult moral development?
Cognitive growth and social experiences;
What increases in influence with age?
What is important to note about postconventional stage of Kohlberg's ideas?
That not all adults reach this stage successfully;
What is theory of mind?
An appreciation for the link between mental states and behavior; used to predict and explain human behavior;
What is folk psychology?
Everyday theories that we hold about the world; you will assume someone voluntarily does something unless you hear from them otherwise;
Why is eye-gaze important?
It can relate to joint understanding later on in the development of social cognition;
What are the first steps to the development of the theory of mind?
Joint attention; pretend play (difference between pretense and reality); imitation (ability to mentally represent their actions and the possibility of goals or intentions behind them);
What does the eye gaze tell us?
About intentions and desires;

"What does Charlie want?" two to three years old can tell that Charlie wants what he is looking at;
What does representational understanding signify?
The mind and the world are separate;
When do theories of mind first take shape?
Two years of age;
When did Wellman think that desire theory of mind develops?
Children realize that at two and three years of age, people may have different desires to other people;
What is the false belief task?
It assesses the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs, which can influence behavior/
At what age do children tend to pass the false belief task?
At age 4;
What were the findings from the broccoli and goldfish experiment?
18 months old can override their own ideas to give broccoli, but 14 month olds think that if "I like Golfish, you like it too"
What is belief-desire theory of mind?
The integrated knowledge of beliefs and desires; can understand people's desires to guide their behavior;
What did the unexpected contents/representational change task reveal?
3 yo report that they initially thought there was pencils; 5 yo will say they intially thought smarties;
What is important to know from the false-belief tasks and other social cognition tasks?
Three year olds fail the tasks, but five year olds are generally sucessful.
What are the two different "camps" in relation to social cognition?
The Boosters and the Scoffers;
Why do the Boosters think that 3 year olds fail the social cognition tasks?
They believe it is a performance problem;
1) linguistic demands;
2) executive function demands - can't inhibit irrelvant information; being told visually, use of trickery or memory problems do little to help;
What is the viewpoint of the Scoffers in relation to social cognition tasks?
The children can't complete the tasks at 3 yo becuase of conceptual deficits;
What helps the Scoffers?
1) motive
2) active participation
3) presence
What does the Scoffers' viewpoint reveal?
That young chidren can't deal with dual temporal representations;
What is the curse of knowledge?
How do you know what you know (source monitoring) is cruical, so you are able to inhibit knowledge;