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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Attitude
• An evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the 3 elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior
Likert scale
• A scale used to assess people’s attitudes that includes a set of possible answers and that has anchors on each extreme
o It lists a set of possible answers, with anchors on each extreme—for example, 1 = never, 7 = always.
Response latency - Attitude Accessibility (fazio)
• Fazio et al. measure the accessibility of attitudes by simply assessing the time it takes the individual to respond to the attitude question.
o Study (fazio) – 5 months before the 1984 presidential election, fazio and Williams measured how long it took participants to answer how good a president the opposing candidates would make. The time it took participants to respond to this question was a strong predictor of who they felt won the first debate between the 2 candidates, and more importantly, it predicted the candidate they voted for 6 months later.
Attitude
• An evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the 3 elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior
Utilitarian functions
• An attitude that serves to alert us to rewarding objects and situations we should approach, and costly or punishing objec\ts or situations we should avoid
o Food preference – our dietary likes and dislikes help us to eat foods that are beneficial to survival and to avoid foods that are potentially dangerous (like sweet, dislike bitter)
o Some evolutionary psychologists claim that people have evolved a preference for landscapes that have water, semi-open space, ground cover, and distant views of the horizon, since these environments provide survival advantages to our ancestors.
Likert scale
• A scale used to assess people’s attitudes that includes a set of possible answers and that has anchors on each extreme
o It lists a set of possible answers, with anchors on each extreme—for example, 1 = never, 7 = always.
Ego-defensive function
• An attitudinal function that enables us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs or desires
Response latency - Attitude Accessibility (fazio)
• Fazio et al. measure the accessibility of attitudes by simply assessing the time it takes the individual to respond to the attitude question.
o Study (fazio) – 5 months before the 1984 presidential election, fazio and Williams measured how long it took participants to answer how good a president the opposing candidates would make. The time it took participants to respond to this question was a strong predictor of who they felt won the first debate between the 2 candidates, and more importantly, it predicted the candidate they voted for 6 months later.
Terror management theory
• A theory positing that to ward off the anxiety we feel when contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldviews and strongly held views out of a belief that by doing so part of us will survive death
o After the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11, Americans displayed patriotic symbols to show their identification with something larger than themselves—their nation—a reaction attributed to an effort to ward off anxiety about possible future attacks
o People made aware of their own mortality expressed more positive evaluations of their own group, greater patriotism, inc religious conviction, greater conformity to cultural standards, and a greater inclination to punish moral transgressions.
Utilitarian functions
• An attitude that serves to alert us to rewarding objects and situations we should approach, and costly or punishing objec\ts or situations we should avoid
o Food preference – our dietary likes and dislikes help us to eat foods that are beneficial to survival and to avoid foods that are potentially dangerous (like sweet, dislike bitter)
o Some evolutionary psychologists claim that people have evolved a preference for landscapes that have water, semi-open space, ground cover, and distant views of the horizon, since these environments provide survival advantages to our ancestors.
Value-expressive function
• An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help us express our most cherished values—usually in groups in which they can be supported and reinforced
Ego-defensive function
• An attitudinal function that enables us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs or desires
Reference groups
• Groups whose opinions matter to us and that affect our opinions and beliefs
o Study (newcomb) – he studied all 600 students at Bennington College. The school was left-leaning in its politics, and it was run by charismatic, liberal professors. The students, on the other hand, were largely from upper-class, Protestant, staunchly Republican families. Results: the liberal context in which they were immersed shaped their political attitudes. Whether students became liberals or remained conservatives, their attitudes reflected a deep value-expressive function.
Terror management theory
• A theory positing that to ward off the anxiety we feel when contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldviews and strongly held views out of a belief that by doing so part of us will survive death
o After the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11, Americans displayed patriotic symbols to show their identification with something larger than themselves—their nation—a reaction attributed to an effort to ward off anxiety about possible future attacks
o People made aware of their own mortality expressed more positive evaluations of their own group, greater patriotism, inc religious conviction, greater conformity to cultural standards, and a greater inclination to punish moral transgressions.
Knowledge function
• An attitude function whereby attitudes help organize our understanding of the world, guiding how we attend to, store, and retrieve information
o Most typically, we pay attention to and recall info that is consistent w/ our preexisting attitudes
o Study (lepper et al.) – after viewing a videotape of a presidential debate, Carter and Reagan supporters think their own candidate won the debate
Value-expressive function
• An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help us express our most cherished values—usually in groups in which they can be supported and reinforced
Elaboration likelihood model
• A model of persuasion that maintains that there are 2 different routes of persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route
Reference groups
• Groups whose opinions matter to us and that affect our opinions and beliefs
o Study (newcomb) – he studied all 600 students at Bennington College. The school was left-leaning in its politics, and it was run by charismatic, liberal professors. The students, on the other hand, were largely from upper-class, Protestant, staunchly Republican families. Results: the liberal context in which they were immersed shaped their political attitudes. Whether students became liberals or remained conservatives, their attitudes reflected a deep value-expressive function.
Central (systematic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people think carefully and deliberately about the content of a message, attending to its logic, cogency, and arguments, as well as to related evidence and principles
o 3 factors that make the central route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) personal relevance of the message
• (2) knowledgeable in domain
• (3) personally responsible
Knowledge function
• An attitude function whereby attitudes help organize our understanding of the world, guiding how we attend to, store, and retrieve information
o Most typically, we pay attention to and recall info that is consistent w/ our preexisting attitudes
o Study (lepper et al.) – after viewing a videotape of a presidential debate, Carter and Reagan supporters think their own candidate won the debate
Peripheral (heuristic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people attend to relatively simple, superficial cues related to the message, such as the length of the message or the expertise or attractiveness of the communicator
o 3 factors that make the peripheral route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) issue is not personally relevant
• (2) distracted or fatigued
• (3) incomplete or hard-to-comprehend message
Attitude
• An evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the 3 elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior
Elaboration likelihood model
• A model of persuasion that maintains that there are 2 different routes of persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route
Central or Peripheral route to persuasion
• Study (Petty & Cacioppo) – in this study, participants ether read 8 weak arguments in support of a comprehensive exam to be implemented at their school or 8 strong arguments. Person relevance was manipulated by notifying the participants that this exam would be initiated either the following year, or in 10 years. Expertise was varied: half of the participants were told the arguments were generated by a local high school class, and half were told that they were generated by a Princeton professor. Results: when the message was not relevant to the student (take exam 10 years later)—the expertise of the source mattered but the strength of the argument did not. Participants who would have to take the exam were more persuaded by strong arguments.
• Strong arguments lead to attitude change for participants for whom the issue is personally relevant more than for those for who the issue is not relevant
• The expertise of the source of the communication, in contrast, matters more for participants for whom the issue is not personally relevant, suggesting they mainly attend to peripheral aspects of the message
Likert scale
• A scale used to assess people’s attitudes that includes a set of possible answers and that has anchors on each extreme
o It lists a set of possible answers, with anchors on each extreme—for example, 1 = never, 7 = always.
Source characteristics
• Characteristics of the person who delivers the message, including the person’s attractiveness, credibility and expertise
o Attractive communicators promote attitude change through the peripheral route of persuasion
o Communicators perceived to be high in credibility produce more persuasion when the topic is of little personal relevant to the target are when the target is distracted, since such a target wouldn’t be paying much attention to the message
Central (systematic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people think carefully and deliberately about the content of a message, attending to its logic, cogency, and arguments, as well as to related evidence and principles
o 3 factors that make the central route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) personal relevance of the message
• (2) knowledgeable in domain
• (3) personally responsible
Response latency - Attitude Accessibility (fazio)
• Fazio et al. measure the accessibility of attitudes by simply assessing the time it takes the individual to respond to the attitude question.
o Study (fazio) – 5 months before the 1984 presidential election, fazio and Williams measured how long it took participants to answer how good a president the opposing candidates would make. The time it took participants to respond to this question was a strong predictor of who they felt won the first debate between the 2 candidates, and more importantly, it predicted the candidate they voted for 6 months later.
Peripheral (heuristic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people attend to relatively simple, superficial cues related to the message, such as the length of the message or the expertise or attractiveness of the communicator
o 3 factors that make the peripheral route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) issue is not personally relevant
• (2) distracted or fatigued
• (3) incomplete or hard-to-comprehend message
Sleeper effect
• An effect that occurs when messages from unreliable sources initially exert little influence but later cause individuals’ attitudes to shift
o Study (hovland & weiss) – participants rated the likelihood that a nuclear submarine would be built in the near future (at the time they did not exist). 5 days later, they read an essay about the imminence of nuclear submarines, written either by a highly credible physicist or a noncredible journalist. Results: 4 weeks later, participants who had read the essay by the noncredible journalist although unmoved initially, actually shifted their attitudes.
o The message has the chance to influence your views because you dissociate the source of the message from its content
Utilitarian functions
• An attitude that serves to alert us to rewarding objects and situations we should approach, and costly or punishing objec\ts or situations we should avoid
o Food preference – our dietary likes and dislikes help us to eat foods that are beneficial to survival and to avoid foods that are potentially dangerous (like sweet, dislike bitter)
o Some evolutionary psychologists claim that people have evolved a preference for landscapes that have water, semi-open space, ground cover, and distant views of the horizon, since these environments provide survival advantages to our ancestors.
Central or Peripheral route to persuasion
• Study (Petty & Cacioppo) – in this study, participants ether read 8 weak arguments in support of a comprehensive exam to be implemented at their school or 8 strong arguments. Person relevance was manipulated by notifying the participants that this exam would be initiated either the following year, or in 10 years. Expertise was varied: half of the participants were told the arguments were generated by a local high school class, and half were told that they were generated by a Princeton professor. Results: when the message was not relevant to the student (take exam 10 years later)—the expertise of the source mattered but the strength of the argument did not. Participants who would have to take the exam were more persuaded by strong arguments.
• Strong arguments lead to attitude change for participants for whom the issue is personally relevant more than for those for who the issue is not relevant
• The expertise of the source of the communication, in contrast, matters more for participants for whom the issue is not personally relevant, suggesting they mainly attend to peripheral aspects of the message
Ego-defensive function
• An attitudinal function that enables us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs or desires
Source characteristics
• Characteristics of the person who delivers the message, including the person’s attractiveness, credibility and expertise
o Attractive communicators promote attitude change through the peripheral route of persuasion
o Communicators perceived to be high in credibility produce more persuasion when the topic is of little personal relevant to the target are when the target is distracted, since such a target wouldn’t be paying much attention to the message
Terror management theory
• A theory positing that to ward off the anxiety we feel when contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldviews and strongly held views out of a belief that by doing so part of us will survive death
o After the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11, Americans displayed patriotic symbols to show their identification with something larger than themselves—their nation—a reaction attributed to an effort to ward off anxiety about possible future attacks
o People made aware of their own mortality expressed more positive evaluations of their own group, greater patriotism, inc religious conviction, greater conformity to cultural standards, and a greater inclination to punish moral transgressions.
Sleeper effect
• An effect that occurs when messages from unreliable sources initially exert little influence but later cause individuals’ attitudes to shift
o Study (hovland & weiss) – participants rated the likelihood that a nuclear submarine would be built in the near future (at the time they did not exist). 5 days later, they read an essay about the imminence of nuclear submarines, written either by a highly credible physicist or a noncredible journalist. Results: 4 weeks later, participants who had read the essay by the noncredible journalist although unmoved initially, actually shifted their attitudes.
o The message has the chance to influence your views because you dissociate the source of the message from its content
Value-expressive function
• An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help us express our most cherished values—usually in groups in which they can be supported and reinforced
Reference groups
• Groups whose opinions matter to us and that affect our opinions and beliefs
o Study (newcomb) – he studied all 600 students at Bennington College. The school was left-leaning in its politics, and it was run by charismatic, liberal professors. The students, on the other hand, were largely from upper-class, Protestant, staunchly Republican families. Results: the liberal context in which they were immersed shaped their political attitudes. Whether students became liberals or remained conservatives, their attitudes reflected a deep value-expressive function.
Knowledge function
• An attitude function whereby attitudes help organize our understanding of the world, guiding how we attend to, store, and retrieve information
o Most typically, we pay attention to and recall info that is consistent w/ our preexisting attitudes
o Study (lepper et al.) – after viewing a videotape of a presidential debate, Carter and Reagan supporters think their own candidate won the debate
Elaboration likelihood model
• A model of persuasion that maintains that there are 2 different routes of persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route
Central (systematic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people think carefully and deliberately about the content of a message, attending to its logic, cogency, and arguments, as well as to related evidence and principles
o 3 factors that make the central route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) personal relevance of the message
• (2) knowledgeable in domain
• (3) personally responsible
Peripheral (heuristic) route of persuasion
• A persuasive route wherein people attend to relatively simple, superficial cues related to the message, such as the length of the message or the expertise or attractiveness of the communicator
o 3 factors that make the peripheral route to persuasion more likely:
• (1) issue is not personally relevant
• (2) distracted or fatigued
• (3) incomplete or hard-to-comprehend message
Central or Peripheral route to persuasion
• Study (Petty & Cacioppo) – in this study, participants ether read 8 weak arguments in support of a comprehensive exam to be implemented at their school or 8 strong arguments. Person relevance was manipulated by notifying the participants that this exam would be initiated either the following year, or in 10 years. Expertise was varied: half of the participants were told the arguments were generated by a local high school class, and half were told that they were generated by a Princeton professor. Results: when the message was not relevant to the student (take exam 10 years later)—the expertise of the source mattered but the strength of the argument did not. Participants who would have to take the exam were more persuaded by strong arguments.
• Strong arguments lead to attitude change for participants for whom the issue is personally relevant more than for those for who the issue is not relevant
• The expertise of the source of the communication, in contrast, matters more for participants for whom the issue is not personally relevant, suggesting they mainly attend to peripheral aspects of the message
Source characteristics
• Characteristics of the person who delivers the message, including the person’s attractiveness, credibility and expertise
o Attractive communicators promote attitude change through the peripheral route of persuasion
o Communicators perceived to be high in credibility produce more persuasion when the topic is of little personal relevant to the target are when the target is distracted, since such a target wouldn’t be paying much attention to the message
Sleeper effect
• An effect that occurs when messages from unreliable sources initially exert little influence but later cause individuals’ attitudes to shift
o Study (hovland & weiss) – participants rated the likelihood that a nuclear submarine would be built in the near future (at the time they did not exist). 5 days later, they read an essay about the imminence of nuclear submarines, written either by a highly credible physicist or a noncredible journalist. Results: 4 weeks later, participants who had read the essay by the noncredible journalist although unmoved initially, actually shifted their attitudes.
o The message has the chance to influence your views because you dissociate the source of the message from its content
Message characteristics
• Aspects of the message itself, including the quality of the evidence and the explicitness of its conclusions
o High quality messages are more persuasive in generally, especially for people who find the message relevant, who have knowledge in the domain, and who feel responsible for the issue
o High quality messages:
• Explicit conclusions
• Explicitly refute the opposition
• Argue against your own self-interest
o Study (hamill et al.) – vivid information embedded in a personal narrative w/ emotional appeal can be more persuasive than statistical facts that are objectively more informative
Identifiable victim effect
• The tendency to be more moved by the plight of a single, vivid individual than by a more abstract aggregate of individuals
o As a consumer, one must distrust vivid appeals, particularly those based on individual case histories
o As a presenter of info, the recommendation is the opposite
o Study (levanthal et al.) – he tried to change the smoking habits of participants in 1 of 3 ways. Some were shown a graphic film, others were given a pamphlet w/ suggestions on how to quit smoking, a third group was given the pamphlet and shown the film. Results: the third group decreased their smoking the most Conclusion: in general, it’s advisable to make health ad campaigns frightening and to also provide info about how to act on the fear that’s created
Receiver characteristics
• Characteristics of the person who receives the message, including age, mood, and motivation to attend to the message
o Audience characteristics that influence the likelihood of attitude change:
• Need for cognition – people w/ a high need for cognition are more persuaded by high-quality arguments, and they are relatively unmoved by peripheral cues of persuasion
• Mood – Ronald Reagan was famous for his disarming, infectious humor; Hitler stirred the emotions of his audience
• Age - younger people are more susceptible to persuasive messages than are adults or the elderly
Hypothetical job: how to increase AIDS awareness and safe-sex practices?
• Tailor your message according to whether the audience is likely to go through the central or peripheral route to persuasion
o Central route people (AIDS is personally relevant, knowledge about AIDS) – give high quality messages, logical and clear, that make subtle rather than heavy-handed recommendations, and that appeal to clear consequences and values
o Peripheral route people (younger audiences, those who know less about AIDS or don’t feel AIDS is relevant to them) – use attractive and credible communicators, that have clear conclusions, and that have the weight of various communication heuristics working in your favor
Third-person effect
• The assumption by most people that “other people” are more prone to being influenced by persuasive messages (such as those in media campaigns) than they themselves are
o They assume that others do not share their powers of rational analysis and restraint
Agenda control
• Efforts of the media to select certain events and topics to emphasize, and thereby shape what issues and events we think of as important
o Study (iyengar & kinder) – viewers saw a series of newscasts. In one condition, they saw 3 stories dealing w/ US dependence on foreign energy sources; in another, six such stories; and in a final condition, not stories like this. When exposed to no news about dependence on foreign energy, 24% cited energy as one of the 3 most important problems facing the country. This percentage rose to 50% for the participants who saw 3 stories, and 65% for the participants who saw 6 stories.
o Heavy television viewers (5 hours or more per day) construe social reality much like the reality they view on TV
• Endorse more racially prejudiced attitudes etc
• Thesis: pervasive media exposure may very well determine our most basic assumptions about the world we live in, about the groups that make up our society, about how we derive satisfaction and well-being, and about human nature
thought polarization hypothesis
• the hypothesis that more extended thought about a particular issue tends to produce more extreme, entrenched attitudes
o study (tesser) – measured participants’ attitudes toward social issues, such as legalizing prositution. He then had the participants think for a few moments about the issue. When they stated their attitudes toward the same issue a second time, they routinely gave stronger ratings.
attitude inoculation
• small attacks upon our beliefs that engage our attitudes, prior commitments, and knowledge structures, enabling us to counteract a subsequent larger attack and be resistant to persuasion
o study (mcquire & papageorgis) – attitude inoculation, in which people use preexisting attitudes, commitments, and knowledge to come up with counterarguments, makes people more resistant to attitude change