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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a process
same as primary process in the opponent process theory of motivation
afferent neuron
a neuron that transmits messages from sense organs to the central nervous system (sensory neuron)
appetitive behavior
behavior that occurs early in a natural behavior sequence and serves to bring the organism into contact with a releasing stimulus
b process
same as opponent process in the opponent process theory of motivation
consummatory behavior
behavior that serves to bring a natural sequences of behavior to consummation or completion. Consummatory responses are usually species typical modal action patterns
dishabituation
recovery of an habituated response as a result of a strong extraneous stimulus
drug tolerance
reduction in the effectiveness of a drug as a result of repeated use of the drug
efferent neuron
a neuron that transmits impulses to muscles. Also called a motor neuron
fatigue
a temporary decrease in behavior caused by repeated or excessive use of the muscles involved in the behavior
focal search mode
the 2nd component of the feeding behavior sequence, following general search, in which the organism engages in behavior focused on a particular location or stimulus that is indicative of the presence of food. Focal search is a form of appetitive behavior that is more closely related to food than is general search
food handling mode
the last component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism handles and consumes the food. This is similar to what ethologists referred to as consummatory behavior
general search mode
the earliest component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism engages in nondirected locomotor behavior. General search is a form of appetitive behavior
habituation effect
a progressive decrease in the vigor of elicited behavior that may occur with repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus
habituation process
a neural mechanism activated by repetitions of a stimulus that reduces the megnitude of responses elicited by that stimulus
interneuron
a neuron in the spinal cord between the afferent (or sensory) neuron and the efferent (or motor) neuron in the reflex arc
modal action pattern
a response exhibited in much the same way by most, if not all, members of a species. MAP are used as basic units of behavior in ethological investigations of behavior
motor neuron
same as efferent neuron
opponent process
a compensatory mechanism that occurs in response to the primary process elicited by biologically significant events. The opponent process causes physiological and behavioral changes that are the opposite of those caused by the primary process. Sometimes referred to as the b process.
primary process
The first process elicited by a biologically significant stimulus. Sometimes referred to as the a process
reflex arc
neural structures, consisting of the efferent (sensory) neuron, interneuron, and afferent (motor) neuron, that enable a stimulus to elicit a reflex response
reinforcer
a stimulus whose delivery shortly following a response increases the future probability of that response
releasing stimulus
same as sign stimulus
sensitzation effect
an increase in the vigor of elicited behavior that may result from repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus or from exposure to a strong extraneous stimulus
sensitization process
a neural mechanism that increases the magnitude of responses elicited by a stimulus
sensory adaptation
a temporary reduction in the sensitivity of sense organs caused by repeated or excessive stimuluation
sensory neuron
same as afferent neuron
sign stimulus
a specific feature of an object or animal that elicits a MAP in another organism. Also called releasing stimulus
spontaneous recovery
recovery of a response produced by a period of rest after habituation or extinction
S-R system
the shortest neural pathway that connects the sense organs stimulated by an eliciting stimulus and the muscles involved in making the elicited response
state system
neural structures that determine the general level of responsiveness, or readiness to respond, of the organism
supernormal stimulus
an artificially enlarged or exagerrated sign stimulus that elicits an unsually vigorous response