Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aggression
a form of behavior that is intended to either physically or verbally hurt others.

tends to decline with age and becomes less physical and more verbal, but it also changes types. Young children employ instrumental "blank", which is used to achieve a goal; older children employ hostile "blank", which is used to hurt other people. Boys, more so than girls, display these behaviors.
Altruism
the unselfish behavior and concern for the well-being of others. Children begin to exhibit this behavior around the age of two and continue to do so increasingly from there on out. this is more common in children who express sophisticated moral reasoning and is also exhibited in young girls more than boys.
Animism
the application of human qualities to inanimate things based on the belief that like oneself, all things are living. An example of this would be a young child asking her mother, “Why is the moon following us?”

is a characteristic of egocentrism
Egocentrism
refers to forms of thinking that center on oneself and rarely take into account the feelings or viewpoints of others. According to Piaget, preoccupational children have a lack of appreciation for points of views other than their own. For example, when on the phone, a preoperational child will often shake or nod their head instead of saying “no” or “yes.” The child does this because he/she doesn’t comprehend the fact that the person on the other end of the phone cannot see them or know what they are doing because they, themselves, know what they are doing. Animism is another feature of this
5. Fetal alcohol syndrome
refers to the inborn complications that occur when a mother drinks excessive amounts of alcohol during her pregnancy. For a pregnant woman to drink even socially could lead to potential birth defects along with IQ, motor skill, attention, and reaction time deficits. Excessive drinking during pregnancy can lead to heart problems, mental and motor retardation, hyperactivity, and microcephaly—causes an abnormally small head—in her child.
6. Gender stereotypes
norms and beliefs about males’ and females’ personalities, characteristics, abilities, and social behaviors that are widely accepted by society. Some examples are the emotional, caring, home-oriented, devoted, and sensitive stereotypes of females, and the strong, active, dominant, and self-confidant stereotypes of males.
germinal stage
occurs during the first two weeks after conception during which cells rapidly divide and a zygote is created through fertilization. Seven days after fertilization, the zygote moves through the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the uterine wall. Up to one in five zygotes are rejected during this slow process; if this occurs, the woman will never even know that fertilization occurred.
8. Menarche
the onset of puberty for girls which typically occurs around the age of 12 ½; a girl’s first cycle of menstruation.
9. Object permanence
the understanding that objects still exist even when they cannot be seen. Infants display the first signs of this learning between the ages of 4 to 8 months when they will go after partially hidden objects. Mastery of this typically does not occur until infants reach the age of 18 months, but once it is mastered, children will be able to think symbolically and represent the hidden objects with mental imagery.
10. Primary sex characteristics
structures necessary for reproduction that develop during puberty. The testes and penis for males; the vagina, uterus, and ovaries for females. In both sexes, related internal structures are also these
11. Senile dementia
the abnormally accelerated and excessive deterioration in the mental facilities of the elderly. About 15% of people over the age of 65 have this.
12. Separation anxiety
the emotional distress displayed by infants when they are separated from people with whom they have a deep attachment. Infants first display this around the age of 6 to 8 months when they object to separation from their mothers. Around the age of 14 to 18 months, this with the mother, father, or any significant other is at its peak, but declines from there after.
visual cliff
a glass panel that is designed to test infant depth perception. By six months of age, most infants display the ability to perceive depth by their refusal to cross over the “cliff”. Around the age of two months, heart rate increases in infants when they are placed on the deep side. This suggests that they can perceive a difference between the two sides but aren’t yet afraid
1. Archetypes
symbols and ideas that hold a universal meaning. Carl Jung believed that symbols from different cultures have many similarities because they all come from these that are shared by the human race as a whole. For example, Jung found that throughout various different cultures, circular symbols often hold the meaning of unification and wholeness. Jung also believed that messages from the unconscious were projected into people’s dreams.
collective unconscious
according to Carl Jung, holds memories that are carried through ancestry. Jung believed that the entire human race shares the same "blank" that contains the “whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual.”
3. Defense mechanisms
unconscious mental maneuvers that serve as protection against unwanted impulses, emotions, or feelings that may trigger a person’s anxiety and/or guilt. Freud believed that the most common defense mechanism was repression.
ego
part of our psyche that acts as a mediator between the demanding id and the outside social world. Taking into consideration norms, etiquette, and society’s expectations of behavior, this makes decisions concerning how we act. Like the id, this also wants gratifications, but does so in ways that avoid negative feedback and therefore, may hold off instant gratification; it operates according to the reality principle.
5. Factor analysis
the analysis of the correlations among a large group of variables in order to identify clusters of closely related variables. this attempts to find any hidden influences that may be leading to high correlations between variables. When used on personality traits, this locates higher-order characteristics that influence less significant characteristics. Through his "blank" of personality, Raymond Cattell found that there are 16 fundamental traits to everyone’s personality.
id
the most primitive component of our personality structure; it houses our urges to sleep, eat and defecate. this is driven by the pleasure principle with which it engages in primary-process thinking (irrational, primitive, illogical, fantasy-oriented thinking).
locus of control
a generalized expectancy about the degree to which individuals control their outcomes. Although most people fall somewhere in the middle, there are two different extremes when it comes to this: people with an external one believe that they have very little influence on their outcomes and that factors such as fate, chance, and luck determine much of what happens to them; people with an internal one believe that they control their own destiny. It has been suggested that those with an internal one acquire more achievement academically, while on the other hand, those with an one of control are more prone to underachievement as well as various personality disorders. The fact that people with an internal one feel that they are in control of their outcome, and therefore work harder, is thought to be the reasoning behind such findings.
8. Personality
the emotional, behavioral, and mental characteristics that are unique to every individual
9. Personality traits
a person’s consistent behavioral temperaments to a variety of different situations. Examples of traits are cautious, outgoing, loving, loyal, rude, etc. Some traits are more basic and fundamental than others; a theorist named Gordon Allport divided over 4500 identified traits into three levels: cardinal traits, which are dominant traits that are apparent in nearly all of a person’s behavior, are greatly influential, and relatively rare; central traits, which are the building blocks of personality, found in everyone (usually 5-10 per person), and influential without being controlling; and secondary traits, which are temperaments that are revealed from time to time in a person’s behavior
10. Pleasure principle
the driving force behind the id that demands its urges to be gratified instantaneously
preconscious
contains thoughts that we can easily recall, but that we aren’t instantly aware of. Examples include the type of car you drive or your best friend’s phone number.
12. Projection
a defense mechanism by which you attribute your own thoughts, feelings, or motives to
13. Rationalization
a type of defense mechanism by which a person tries to justify otherwise unacceptable behavior with false excuses. For example, if you were to keep a $50 bill that you found in a parking lot, you could rationalize by saying, “Anyone else would have done the same thing” or, “finders keepers.”
14. Reaction formation
a defense mechanism that unconsciously develops behaviors which are the opposite of one’s true feelings. this is more often than not a result of guilt from sexual desires. For example, a teenage boy teases and taunts the girl he has a crush on.
15. Reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura’s theory that internal mental events, overt behavior, and external environment events all have an influence on each other. Like Skinner, Bandura believed that environment influences behavior, but also that behavior influences environment.
reality principle
is the principle by which the ego operates. this puts gratification into play after the appropriate time and situation is found.
17. Repression
the “motivated forgetting” of distressful or unwanted thoughts, feelings, anxieties, or guilty pleasures. For example, one might “forget” their parents’ divorce, to do their homework, or meet an annoying co-worker for lunch
18. Secondary traits
are temperaments that are revealed from time to time in a person’s behavior. For example, a normally easy-going, relaxed person may have an important deadline to make and therefore becomes tense and short-tempered.
19. Self-actualization
according to Maslow, is a quality shared by people who have healthy personalities and that experience continual personal growth. Maslow identified that these people are happy with who they are, enjoy their sense of humor and relationships with others, are sensitive, appreciative, and spontaneous, comfortable being on their own, experience more emotional highs than others, and strike a balance between personality polarities.
superego
the part of our personality structure that focuses on the social standards between right and wrong. Between the ages of 3 and 5, this becomes distinguished from the ego. this works against the id and can sometimes strive for too much moral perfection.
approach-avoidance conflict
a situation that requires a choice to be made about the pursuit of a goal with both satisfying and unsatisfying aspects. For example, if you take on a new job, you’ll get better pay, but you’ll be working twice as much. these conflicts are often associated with taking risks and cause vacillation (going back and forth between decisions). The best way to tackle these conflicts is to lower the avoidance tendency and raise the approach tendency.
avoidance-avoidance conflict
a situation that requires a choice to be made between two unsatisfactory goals. An example of one could be choosing between doing your homework and cleaning your room—neither is very appealing, but one must be done. these conflicts are especially stressful.
burnout
a response to emotionally demanding situations, people may experience mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion.
4. Catharsis
a term that Freud used to refer to the release of emotional tension. Freud believed that aggressive behavior allowed for the release of pent-up emotions and also allowed for adaptation. Despite some minor evidence supporting Freud’s idea, acting-out aggressively is more likely to create yet another stressor than it is to release tension.
5. Conflict
the incompatibility between two or more behavioral impulses or motivations that as a result, compete for expression. There are three different types of conflict: approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance.
7. Frustration
behaviors and thoughts that occur when a particular goal is not met, achieved, or have been interrupted. For example, someone who worked really hard at studying for a test but then failed when the time came would probably be very frustrated. this occurs daily in just about everyone’s lives and can cause significant stress, especially after loss or failure. Environmental factors such as excessive heat or rain can also cause this.
general adaptation syndrome
formulated by Hans Seyle, the general adaptation syndrome represents the body’s physiological reactions in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
- Alarm: physiological arousal and preparation to face a challenge. The alarm reaction occurs at the first sign of a threat.
- Resistance: the stabilization of physiological changes and shift into coping strategies as experienced after prolonged exposure to stress. During this stage, arousal tends to plateau as one becomes accustomed to threat, but it still remains higher than normal.
- Exhaustion: as stress continues, an individual’s body will begin to run low on its resources which it uses for fighting. Eventually, exhaustion may cause one to collapse if the stressor cannot be overcome. During the exhaustion stage, resistance and arousal both decline.
9. Hardiness
personality syndrome that displays strong resistance to stress. People who express this are committed, have a sense of control, and evaluate stressful situations as more approachable and less threatening than do other personalities.
10. Health psychology
a division of psychology that is dedicated to the relationship between psychosocial factors and health. this seeks to find links between behavior patterns and heart disease, stress and illness, and question why people continue dangerous health habits despite knowing their risk, and why people delay medical treatment and ignore the advice from their doctors