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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Salic Acid
Not in humans or neanderthals, I think
According to Mitochondrial DNA we share
common female ansester 100,000 years ago
Because of y chromosomes we can see
that we share common male answster 100,000 years ago
Oldest modern human scull found
200,000 years ago
Human left Africa
60-40,000 yeasr ago throough miuddle to Austrilia
Small head and small brain - very low IQ
Fox PZ
Can't tell difference between past and present tense - when knocked out in mice it makes them unable to squeek
Some ares in brain account for both laungage and
ability to walk upright
Schizorphrenia has to do with levels of
Dopamine in the midbrain and frontal lobe
Drugs that can cause behavior that mimics schizorphenria
Bipolar disorder can be caused by
Stuttering genes or trinucleotide repeats
Increases serotonin
B-amyloid blumps associated with
Alzheimer's disease
Associated with memory and retrevial - first system of alzheimer's
In Alzheimer's
Old memories are more resistant to damage than recent memories
What damages the brain?
Peroxide and sinc and copper
they work against peroxides and helps prevent shrinkage
An excitartory neurotransmitter
Inhititory neurotransmitter that is activated by alcholog
This occurs with alcholo - makes cells commit suicide by cells in FAS
Neural Adhesion Protein
When decrease brain cannot develop correctly
How well you metabolize alcohol - higher amount found in men
With alcohol, women are
More likely to get brain and liver damage
X-chromosome linked gene - made men more likely to be aggressive
Normal MAO
Good parents - low aggression
High MAO
Bad parents makes bad citizen
As far as IQ goes, men are
More variable than women
Neural development
Begins as a fluid cord/hollow tube

then cerebral hemisphere develops
what percent of the human brain is cerebral cortex
Balanced polymorphism
A certain proportion of genes is selected for – Even if certain genes are negative (such as more aggressive) it’s ok if the gene appears in small amounts, because maybe that individual may be the hero of a small community
hypothalamus is very closely connected to the
Pituitary gland
Nuclei are in the
Hypothalamus and each has an important function relating to metabolism and motivation and emotion
Cough and gag reflex
Complex sensory motor interaction - can live without though
Middle of the brain
Gateway – determines which information reaches consciousness
Sleeping sickness is caused by
damage to the reticular formation
Has to do with metabolism - prefer sweet food
bilateral, when amygdale is overactive we become very fearful and aggressive. When amygdale doesn’t work individuals are incapable of feeling and can not fear. It might be possible that abnormal amygdale activity may have to do with
Frontal Lobe
Very specialized, empathy, most highly developed, higher cognitive and creative functions are a function of the frontal lobe, mood is also involved here, immune responses, empathy – ability to recognize the effects of our behavior on others
Parietal Lobe
Dancing, knowing were your hands are on a piano, body sensations, somatic sensations, spatial functions, men tend to have a larger parietal lobe, direction finding
Temporal Lobe
Recognition, facial and emotional recognition, auditory and language, music
Occipital Lobe
Visual perception, eye sends input, strictly visual in nature, Humans have best vision
Cell Body
Soma; All the metabolic characteristics of cells; also receives messages from other sources; attached to it are tiny branches that are called dendrites, which are specialized for receiving information from different sources
Specialized for transporting information over long distances without losing information
Axon Potential
Yes or no message of the axon – Electrical charge that is sent all the way along the axon
If Axon Spike doesn’t work correctly
multiple Scoliosis - Myelin helps this process and increases speed and efficiency
Fat substance that serves as insulation
Neuron Transmitters jump
across the synapses gap
Fluid filled gap between 2 neurons that neurotransmitters send signals
When axon spike reaches axon potential the closest synapses burst letting
out all the neurotransmitters
After reception
an ion channel forms, so information can be transferred very easily
Because of this channel (instead of just direct connection)
we can make choices (so we have chemical synapses)
G-Protein Receptor
This synapses is slow in modulation – Instead of just using the ion channel, it activates a G-protein which may or may not open the ion channel. Allows us to bring in other information, such as prior training (analyze)
Neural Transmitters
very quickly, short life, rapidly – To deactivate it, it can be sucked back up (reuptake) and made to be pre-synapses or we have deactivating enzymes
Just read this a lot
Neuron transmitter has to be where it is supposed to be, vesicles by axon terminal – Released by the action of an axon spike – then go across the synapse and occupy a post-synapse gap
Blood Brain Barrier
metabolic characteristic that allows only certain substances or chemicals to enter the brain
Right partial lobe larger `
Decreases in sensitivity – adaptation. Thalamus blocks out certain sounds until they are brought to your attention, habituation.
In the back of the retina we have the object
Upside down and backwards
When rays are focused behind retina we are
When rays are focused in front of retina
Energy transferred from one place to another, energy created from vocal coreds, which vibrates air molecules, sound cannot travel through a vacuum
Type 1 alcoholism
bullet The onset of alcohol-related problems occurs after the age of 25.
bullet A low degree of spontaneous alcohol-seeking behavior and alcohol-related fighting.
bullet Psychological dependence, coupled with guilt and fear about alcoholism.
bullet A low degree of novelty-seeking and a high degree of harm avoidance.
Type 2 alcoholism
bullet The onset of alcohol-related problems occur before the age of 25.
bullet There is a high degree of spontaneous alcohol-seeking behavior and fighting.
bullet Infrequent feelings of guilt and fear about alcohol dependence.
bullet A low degree of harm avoidance and a high degree of thrill seeking.
What are two structures that make up the diencephalon

* thalamus

# hypothalamus
metabotropic receptor
receptors associated with G proteins
Ionotropic receptors
Receptors that are associated with ligand-activated ion channels
Reticular formation, pons, cerebellum
The rattlesnake is different from us because it:
See infared
Rods are responsible for
Vision in dim light