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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
thinking/cognition
cognition:
-mental processes that goes on when a person is organizing and attempting to understand info.
-communicating that info to others.
mental image
a
insight
a
barriers to problem solving:
-functional-fixedness
-mental set
-confirmation bias
functional-fixedness is the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
mental set-exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.
confirmation bias is the tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
-unnecessary constraints.
-irrelevant info.
IQ(mental age, chronological age)
a
standardization (in testing)
standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in administering and scoring a test.
valitidy and reliability
reliability refers to the measurement consistency of a test.
validity refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
understand that intelligence is largely hereditary (80% heritability)
a
assessment for mental retardation
a
gardner's multiple intelligences
a
spearmans's g factor
g factor- the ability to reason and solve problems(general intelligence)
s factor- the ability to excel in certain areas (specific intelligence)
new directions in the assessment/study of intelligence
a
language( grammar, syntax, phonemes)
a
primary versus acquired drives
a
maslow's hierarchy of needs
a
intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
a
need for affiliation
a
sensation-seeking
a
bulimia
-binging and purging
-tooth decay, erosion of lining of esophagus, vitamin deficiencies
-treatment
hunger
a
galvanic skin response
GSR- is an increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity
three components of emotion
-a subjective sonscious experience (cognitive component)
-bodily arousal (physiological component)
-characteristic overt expressions(behavioral component)
james-lange and cannon-bard theories of emotion
James-Lange Theory states that ones conscious experience of emotion results from ones perception of autonomic arousal(physiological response > emotion).
cannon-Bard Theory states that emotions occur when the thalamus sends signals to the cortex, creating the conscious experience of emotion, and to the autonomic nervous system, creating bodily arousal (thalamus > physiological response AND emotion)
six emotional expressions that people can identify across cultures
a
display rules
a
primary sex characteristics
Physical characteristics that are present in the infant at birth:
Female:
-vagina
-uterus
-ovaries
Male:
-testes/testicles
-scrotum
-prostate gland
gender
gender is the psychological aspects of being male or female
gender schema
gender schema theory:
-gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropriate gender behavior as well as imitation of gender models.
-children imitate the behavior of parents, siblings, family friends, teachers, and other children.
-media influences.
relate and report styles of communication
a
masters and johnson model of sexual response(arousal, plateau, orgasm, resolution)
a
kinsey study- know the general findings (you don't need to know numbers or percentages) and limitations
a
sexual orientation(what is it? what are three major orientations?)
sexual orientation- a person's sexual attraction preference for members of a particular sex
-Heterosexual- person attracted to opposite sex
-Homosexual-person attracted to the same sex
-Bisexual- person attracted to both men and women
understand the research on the nature/nuture debate on homosexuality
a
transvestitism
a
HIV/AIDS
-viral
-causes deterioration of immune system
-results in death because body cannot fight off infection
-drug treatments but no cure
understand that stress is subjective
a
types of conflict
a
defense mechanism (know about them and know denial and displacement specifically)
a
type a personality/behavior
Type a Behavior and heart disease:
-type A personality:strong, competitive orientation, impatience and time urgency, anger and hostility
-Associated with heart disease:
-greater physiological reactivity
-create more stress for themselves
-less social support
-have health habits that may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
distress vs eustress
distress is the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors. eustress is the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being.
3 components of the stress response
emotional
physiological
behavioral
physiological response to stress-parts of brain/body associated with response
a
General adaptation syndrome model
GAS is a model of the body's stress response, consisting of 3 stages : alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
-alarm reactions occurs when an organism 1st recognizes a threat> physiological arousal.
-as stress continues, the organism progresses to the stage of resistance.
-when the body's resources to fight stress are depleted, the organism reaches exhaustion.
social support
-advice
-physical or monetary support
-information
-emotional support
-love and affection
-companionship
problem-focused coping
-working to eliminate or change the stressor itself to reduce its impact
how religion helps with coping
people with religious beliefs hav been found to cope better with stressful events. many religions encourage healthy behavior.