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30 Cards in this Set

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A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex.
unconditioned response
A cognitive model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected.
Rescorla-Wagner model
Thorndike's general theory of learning, which states that any behavior that leads to a "satisfying state of affairs" is more likely to occur again and that those that lead to an "annoying state of affairs" are less likely to reoccur.
law of effect
Reinforcers that are innately reinforcing, such as those that satisfy biological needs.
primary reinforcers
The strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement.
partial-reinforcement extinction effect
Neurons in the premotor cortex that are activated during observation of others performing an action.
mirror neurons
Regions in the brain that support ICSS
Pleasure Centers
A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus.
extinction
A stimulus that occurs following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
Punishment
Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
stimulus generalization
A learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not.
stimulus discrimination
The increase in the probability of a behavior being repeated through the removal of an aversive stimulus.
negative reinforcement
Eric Kandel's work with the aplysia (a sea slug) has demonstrated what?
that habituation and sensitization, simple forms of learning, are associated with changes in the function of the synapse.
projects from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens.
mesolimbic dopamine system
The decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of nonthreatening stimuli
habituation
imitation by an animal or human of a behavior that has been observed
Modeling
Law of Effect is:
the theory stating that any behavior that leads to a positive outcome will be strengthed, whereas behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will be weakened
Reigons of the brain that support intracrainal self-stimulation
Pleasure Centers
A reinforcement schedule in which the number of responses necessary for reinforcement or interval responses does not vary
fixed schedule
rewarding of successive approximations of a desired behavior
shaping
A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of an experience
learning
learning that occurs in the absense of reinforcement
latent learning
occurs when we watch others perform a behavior and observe the consequences of that behavior.
Vicarious learning
Example of the removal of the chance to earn a food reward is intended to reduce the number of incorrect responses
negative punishment
therapist who developed the technique of systematic desensitization
Joseph Wolpe
leads to changes in the postsynaptic neuron making it more likely that the neuron will fire.
Long-term potentiation
may only temporarily inhibit an unwanted behavior is one reason why learning theorists suggest using rewards to reinforce desired behaviors is a better way to produce changes in behavior
punishment
The Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the association between the CS and US can be explained based on...
the extent to which the US is unexpected
Which of the following produces the strongest conditioning?
presentation of the CS followed immediately by presentation of the US