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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cognititive psychology
a studfy of the mental processes by which information from the enviroment is modified, made meaningful stored retrived used and communicated to others
information-processing system
mechanisms for retrieving information, representing it with symbols and manipulation it
the minipulations of mental representations
reaction time
the time between presentation of stimulus and and overt responce to it
formal concept
a concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or properties
natural concept
a concept that has no fixed set of defining features but has a set of characteristic features
a member of a natural concept that possesses all or most of its charasteristic features
a mental representation of the relationship between concepts
a mental representation of familiar sequences of activity
mental model
a cluster of propositions represention our understanding of objects and processes that guides our interaction with those things
a mental representation of visual information
cognative map
a mental representation of familiar parts of the enviroment
a process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and reach conclusions about them
formal reasoning
the process of following a set of rigorous procedures for reaching valid conclusions
a systematic procedure that cannot fail to produce a correct solution to the problem if a solution exists
rules of logic
sets of statements that provide a formula for drawing vaid conclusions
an argument made up of two propositions called premises and a conclusion based on those premises
confirmation bias
the tendency to pay more attention to evidence in support of ones hyphthesis than to evidence that refutes it
informal reasoning
the precoess of evaluating a conclusion, theory, or course of action on the basis of the believability of evidence
timesaving mental shortcuts used in reasoning
anchoring heurisitcs
a mental shortcut that involves basing judgements on existing information
representativeness heuristic
a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class on the basis of its similarity to other members of that class
availability heuristic
mental shortcut through which judgements are based on information that is most easlly brought to mind
mental set
the tendency for old patters of problem solving to persist even when they might not always be the most efficient alternative
functional fixedness
a tendency to think about familiar objedcts in familiar ways that may prevent using them in other ways
the subjective measure of value
expected value
the total benefit to be expected if a decision were to be repeated several times
the set of rules that govern the formation or phrases and the sentences in a language
rules governing the meaning of words and sentences
surface structure
the order in which words are arranged are arranged in sentences
the one word stage
the stage of language developement during which children tend to used one word at a time
telegraphic speech
two word sentences formed around 18 months they are brief and to the point ex. "give book"
the first sounds infants make that resemble speech
the fact that each option has positive and negitive features
risky decisions
decisions when the outcome is uncertain
Loss Aversion
People Usually feel worse about loosing some amount than gaining the same amount
group polarization
The tendency towards extreme decisions by groups