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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the stages of developing language and what are the ages associated with these stages?
0-12 months- Crying, cooing, babbling
10-17 mo- first word, one-word stage
18-20 mo- two word stage and application of basic rules of grammar
24 mo- telegraphic speech, rules of grammar (overgeneralization and overextension)
36 mo- caretaker speech
What is language?
A form of comminication consoisting of sounds, words, meanings, and their combinations
What is the property of language that account for the communication of meaning?
What are the basic, distinct sounds of a spoken language?
What are the samlles units that carry meaning in language? (prefixes, root words etc.)
What is a group of words that act as a unit to convay a meaning and is formed of morphemes?
a phrase
What is the proerty of language that accounts for the capacity to use a limited number of words to produce an infinate variety of expressions?
What are the rules of grammar that govern theh arrangement if words in a sentence?
What is the property of language that accounts for the capacity to communicate about matters that are not in the here-and-now?
What is the social context of language and an understanding of how to use it?
What is the spontaneous vocalization of basic speech sounds, which infants begin at about 4 months?
What is the nature view of language? Any proof?
language aquisition is prewired
kids aquire grammatical rules without learning them,
kids babble all of the human phonemes at a young age
What is the nurture view of language?
Language is social
w/o exposure to language you will not speak it
What is telegraphic speech?
Early short form of speech in which a child omits unecassary words (Kitty follow Ann home)
What is overgeneralization of grammar?
The application of basic grammatical rules be children where they do not apply (I breakED the TV)
What is overextension of grammar?
The application of a word for a whole catagory of things
(doggie for dogs, cats, horses)
What is intelligence?
The capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to one's enviroment
What are the types of Intelligence tests?
Stanford-Binet, Wechsler scales, Group aptitude tests
What is the Stanford Binet Test?
An american version of Binet's intelligence test that yeilds an IQ score with an average of 100.
What is mental age?
In an intelligence test the average age if the children who achieve a certain level of performance
What is the intelligence quotient (IQ)?
Originally defined as the ratio of mental age to chronological age, it now represents a person's performance relative to same age peers

(originally mental age/chronological age x 100)

IQ looks more at rate of development
What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
The most widely used IQ test for adults, it yeikds seperate scores for verbal and performance subscores (and is very time consuming)
What is the benefit of group aptitude tests?
They can test more than one person at a time (unlike WAIS and Stan-Bin)

They are standardized, reliable, and valid
What is the procedure by which existing norms are used to interpret an inividual's test score?
what is the extent to which a test yeilds consistant results over time or using alternate forms?
What is the degree to which a test yiels consistant results when readministered at a later time
test-retest reliability
What is the degree to which alternate forms of a test yeild consistant results?
split-half reliability
What is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is designed to?
What are the two types of reliabliity?
test-retest and split-half reliability
What are the two types of validity?
content validity and criterion validity
What is the extent to which a test measures what it's suppose to neasure?
content validity
What is the extent to which a test can predict a concurrent or future outcome?
criterion validity
What is general intellingence (g)?
A broad intellectual ability foctor used to explain why performance of different intelligence tests items are often correlated
What is factor analysis?
A statical technique used to identify clusters of test items that correlate to one another
What is Spearman's theory of intelligence?
That individuals differ in general intelligence,

and to explain why correlations among tests are not perfect her believed thar each test score is affected by the specific ability being tested
How does neural speed correlate to IQ?
The faster neurons fire the higer the IQ
What are Gardner's frames of mind?
The theory of mulitiple intelligences that are each linked to a seperate and independant system within the human brain
What are multiple intelligences?
Gardener's theory that there are seven types of intelligence:
linguistic, logical-mathimatical, spacial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpresonal, and intrapersonal)
What is Steinberg's Triarchic theory?
The intelligence theory that there are three kinds of intelligence:
What is analytic intelligence?
mental steps or "components" used ot solve problems
What is creative intelligence?
Use of experience in ways that foster insight and leads to novel solutions
What is divergent thinking?
The ability to think flexibly and entertain a wide tange of possible solutions

associated with creative thinking
What is practical intelligence?
The ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life
What is personality?
An individual's distinct and relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors
What is the interactionalist view of personality?
A view that argues that personality is not just a ripening of genetic traits, nor just the effect of varied situations but both
What is the consistancy paradox of personality?
Although people see themselves as acting consistently across situations, the cross-situational correlations are usually quite low
What are the 5 main approaches to studying personality?
Trait, psychodynamic, behaviorist, cognitive social learning, and humanistic
What is the ideographic appraoch to trait theory
The approach to personality that stresses uniqueness. No two personalities are exactly alike; therefore, in this approach investigators believe that personality must be studied in terms of its own organization and not in comparison to other personalities. The idiographic approach also stresses the study of the whole personality.
What is the nomothetic approach in trait theory?
This approach to the study of personality stresses that uniqueness may be accounted for as a point of intersection of a number of quantitative variables. The theorist who uses the nomothetic approach usually describes personality in terms of traits that all people posses in greater or lesser degrees.
What is a relatively stable predisposition to behave a certain way?
a trait
What is the parodox of personality that is described when someone says, "You've changed"
stability paradox

ppl assume that personality is relatively stable throughout time when it may not be
What is the paradox of stability that is described when someone says, "You're not yourself today"
consistancy paradox

ppl tend to be more flexible in childhood
consistancy increases with age
What are the critisisms of personallity consistancy?
that behavior is controlled by a situation
What was Epsteins view on personality?
personality consistancy depends both on situaltion and general trends
What is the trait approach to personality?
ppl habe a number of characteristics or traits that control specific behavior
What does the trait approach describe?
it describes and measures personality factors it does NOT explain why they occur
What is the idenographic approach to personality?
there exists an unlimited amount of traits
What is the nomotheic approach to personality?
There exists a limited amount of traits (the current way of thinking)
What was Gordon Allports approach to personality
trait , idenographic
There are three types of traits: cardinal (obvious: agressive), central (not dominant: argumentitive) and secondary (occasionally angry)
What are Alloports three basic trait types?
cardinal (obvious: agressive),
central (not dominant: argumentitive)
and secondary (occasionally angry)
What was Catell's approach to personality?
trait, nomothethic

first 18,000 traits, then 16 source traits
What are Erykson's trait dimensions
There are 3:
introversion v extroversion
neurotisism v stability
psychoticism v considration
What are the big 5 of personality?
emotional stability (neuroticism)
openess (cultural and intellectual)
What is the trait theory approach to testing personality?
objective testing
What is an example of an objective test of personality?
What is the MMPI-2 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
A large-scale test designed to measure a multitude of psychological disorders and personality traits.
How much of one's personallity is genetic?
What is the critique of trait personality theory?
It makes weak predictions
does not explain "WHY?"
does not accuratly account for cultural norms/influence
What is the psychodynamic theory have to say about personality?
Ppl's behvior (and personality) is controlled by inner forces of which they are unaware. The forces of the unconsciousness forces in each person depends on experiences in childhood
What is the name for when a patient moves feelings aimed at one person onto another?
WHat is it called when a patient goes blank or changes the subject at the brink of an imp insight?
What is (in psychoanalysis) the primitive and inconcious part of personality that contains casic drives and opprates according to the pleasure principle?
What is the Id's coundless drive for imediate gratification?
pleasure principle
WHt is the part of personality that consists on one's moral IDEALS and conscience?
What is an image of the ideal we strive for?
What is a set of prohibitions that define how we should not behave?
What is the part of personality tjat opperates according to the reality principle and mediates the conflict between the id and superego
the ego
What is the ego's capacity to delay gratification?
the reality principle
What does Freud say about human development?
(1) personality is shaped in the first few years of life
(2) resolution of "psychosexual" conflicts is the key contributor
What are the psychosexual stages?
Freud's stages of personality during whch pleasure is derived from different parts of the body
(oral, anal, phallic, genital)
What is the oral stage of Freud's psychosexual stages? What is the source of conflict?
first year of life when infants derive pleasure from mouth

wheening is source of conflict
What is the anal stage of Freud's psychosexual stages? What is the source of conflict?
(2-3 years) pleasure is derived from the sensation of holding on to and letting go of feces

toilet training is source of conflict
What is the phallic stage of Freud's psychosexual stages? What is the source of conflict?
(4-6 years) pleasure is derived from genitals
(kids play with themselves in public and parents respond is source of conflict)
What comes after the phallic stage of Freud's psychosexual stages?
The Oedipus conflict
What is the process by which children internalize their parents values and form a superego? (in psychianalysis)
What is the larency period of Freud's psychosexual stages?
(age 7-12) when sexual impulses lie dormant
What is the genital stage of Freud's psychosexual stages? What is the source of conflict?
(Pubert on) adultlike sexual urges
What is the tendency to get locked on at early, immature stages of psychosexual development?
WHat are unconcious methods of minimizing anxiety by denying and distorting reality?
defense mechanisms
What are the psychosexual stages of development
oral (1 y)
anal (2-3)
phallic (4-6)
[Oedipus conflict]
[latency period]
genital (puberty on)
The preconcious includes what?
ego and some of superego
The unconcious includes what?
ID and some of super ego
What are Freud's defense mechanisms?
reaction formation
What is the defense mechanism that involves the reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable impulses
What is the unconscious defence mechanism, whereby the mind redirects emotion from a ‘dangerous’ object to a ‘safe’ object. In psychoanalytic theory, displacement is a defence mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening target; redirecting emotion to a safer outlet
What is the defence mechanism when personally threatening thought, memories and impluses are banned from awareness
What is the primitive form of repression in which anziety filled external events are barred from awareness
What is the defence mechanism when ppl attribute their own unaccaptable impulses onto others
What is the defence mechanism when one converts an unacceptable feeling into its opposite
reaction formation
What is the defence mechanism that describes making excuses for one's failures and shortcomings
What is the defence mechanism that describes the channeling of repressed sexual urges and agressive behavior into socially accaptable substiture outlets
what are tests tha allow ppl to "project" inconcious needs wishes etc. onto ambiguous stimuli
projective tests
What are two projective tests?
Roschach inkblot test and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What is the inkblot test called?
WHat is a projective personality test in which ppl are asked to make up stories from ambigous pictures?
Tematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What are the critisisms for projective personality tests?
Lack reliability (examiners can reach diff conclusions based on same answers) and variability ( does not discriminate btw groups with diff personalities)
What are the critisisms of Freud?
few objectibe observations
after the fact explainations
inaccesible to control studies
too fexible
no consideration for culture
little evidence that chilhood determines adulthood
What is the Behaviorist approach to personality?
personality based on punishment and reinforcement
According to behaviorists what causes personality disorders?
positive reinforcement of inappropriate behavior or vice versa
What are the critisisms of the behaviorist approach?
ignores emotion
lowin comprehensiveness
What is the Cognitive-Social learning approach to behavior?
it is similar to the behaviorist approach in that there is learning but this learning is done through modeling, observation adn interpretation
What is the social learning process bu which behavior is observed and imitated?
What it the term refering to the expectancy that one's reinforcements are gernerally controled by internak or external factors?
locus of control
What are the tewo loci of control?
internal (what is happening is my own doing)
external ( i have no control)
WHat is the belif that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome
What is the view that personality emerges from a mutual interaction of individuals, their actions, and enviroment?
reciprocal determinism
What is the humanist appraoch to personality?
focuses on the self, subjective experience abd the capacity for fulfillment
What is a situation in which the acceptance and love one recieves from a significant other is unqualified?
unconditional positive regard
What is a situation in which the acceptance and love one recieves from a significant other is contingent upon one's behavior?
conditional positive regard
What is the notion that discrepencies between one's self-concept and "ideal" and "ought" selves have negative emotional consequences?
self-discrepency theory

it can lead to mental-health affects such as guilt or sadness
What is Maslow's higherarchy of needs?
safety and security
belongingness and love
esteem-related needs (achievement, status, regognition)
What is the need to fulfill one's unique potential
What are the 5 axes of the DSM -IV ?
Axis I: Clinical Syndromes

This is what we typically think of as the diagnosis (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, social phobia)

Axis II: Developmental Disorders and Personality Disorders

(autism and mental retardation, disorders which are typically first evident in childhood

Personality disorders are clinical syndromes which have a more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world. They include Paranoid, Antisocial, and Borderline Personality Disorders.

Axis III: Physical Conditions which play a role in the development, continuance, or exacerbation of Axis I and II Disorders

Physical conditions such as brain injury or HIV/AIDS that can result in symptoms of mental illness are included here.

Axis IV: Severity of Psychosocial Stressors

Events in a persons life, such as death of a loved one, starting a new job, college, unemployment, and even marriage can impact the disorders listed in Axis I and II. These events are both listed and rated for this axis.

Axis V: Highest Level of Functioning

On the final axis, the clinician rates the person's level of functioning both at the present time and the highest level within the previous year. This helps the clinician understand how the above four axes are affecting the person and what type of changes could be expected.
What is comorbidity?
the presence of more than one mental disorder occurring in an individual at the same time. On the DSM Axis I, Major Depressive Disorder is a very common comorbid disorder
What are the anxiety disorders?
generalized anxiety
stress (PTSD)
What are the components of behavioral therapy?
rely on classical and operant conditioning

use systematic desensitization
aversive conditioning
behavioral contracting
token economies
What is the technique used to modify disordered thought feelings etc through the principles of learning?
behavioral therapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy
What is a behavioral therapy technique in which the patient is saturated with a fear-provoking stimulus until the anxiety is extinguished?
WHat is the behavioral therapy technique used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders by pairing gradual exposure to an anxiety-provoking situation with relaxation
systematic desensitization
What is the behavioral therapy technique for classically conditioning ppl to react with aversion to alcohol and other harmful substances?
aversion technique
What is a large scale behavioral change program in which the participants earn valuable tokens for engaging in desired target behaviors?
token economy
What are the major mood disorders?
major depression (unipolar disorder)
How do you treat the mood disorders?
What is th eform of psychotehapy in which ppl are taught to think in more adaptive ways?
cognitive theory
What is the theory that how we attribute the events that occur in our lives has a significant effect on our attitudes and efforts in improving our lot.
theory of learned helplessness
What is Beck's gognitive therapy?
A gentler more collaborative approch (that REBT) to helping ppl restructure the way they interpret events by mans of Socratic questioning (What is the evidence for this?)
What is the form of cognitive therapy in which ppl are confronted with their irrational maladaptive beliefs
rationl-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)
What are the schizophrenic disorders?