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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychological disorder
A pattern of behavioral, cog, emotional, or physical symptoms shown by an indiv. One or more of the following 3 features: Some degree of distress; beh indicates some degree of disability which limits activity in phy, emot, cog, beh func. Distress inc risk of further suffering or harm or loss of freedom.
Ability to successfully adapt in the env. Devel. compet is reflected in child's ability to use internal and ext resouces to achieve a successful adaptation.
Study of abnormal child psy
Considers not only the degree of maladaptive beh children show, but also the extent to which they achieve normal devel milestones.
Devel tasks:
Include broad domains of competence such as conduct and academic achievement, tell how children typically progress w/in each domain. Knowledge of this provides a backdrop. Conduct: fundamental domain indicating how well a person follows the rules of a partic society.
Devel pathway
Refers to the sequence and timing of particular behaviors and possible relationships btwn beh over time. Visual devel as a dynamic process with very different beginnings and outcomes to understand normal/abn devel.
Various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings. Vs, the concept that similar outcomes stem from diff early esp and devel pathways.
Today less than...
10% of children w/ mental health problems receive proper services to address impairments related to personal, family, or situational factors. Unchanged for over 30 yrs, some greater attention today. Children disprop afflicted with m.h. prob: Disadv families and neighborhoods, from abusive or neglectful families, rec inadequate child care; very low birth weight due to smoking/diet/alcohol/drugs. Children born to parents w/ criminal histories or severe mental illness.
Key factors affecting rates and expression of mental disorders:
Poverty: in childhood for 1 in 6 children; about 1/3 Am children will be poor at some point in childhood; leads to learning impairments and affects achievment. Low income is tied w/ less educ, low paying jobs, inadequate health care, single parents, limited resources, poor nutrition, greater exposure to violence. These children show 3x as many CDs, 2x chronic illness, more than 2x rate of school problems, hyperactivity, and emotional disorders. Deeper poverty: higher violence (3x in girls, 5x in boys).
Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders
Sex diff: Boys (hyperact, autism, disruptive beh, learning and communication disorders) Girls (anxiety, depression, eating disorders).
Sex diff are due to:
Due to: definitions, reporting biases (more disturbing problems reported), differencs in expression. Sex diff are negligible in children under 3 but inc w/ age. Boys show higher rates of early onset disorders that involve some form of neurodevel impairment vs girls w/ emotional disorders w/ a peak age of onset at adolescence. Ext. problems for boys start out higher for girls in preschool and early elementary yrs and these dec gradually for boys and girls until they almost converge by 18.
Sex diff resilience:
Boys: male role model, structure, rules, encouragement of emotional expressiveness. Girls: combination of risk taking and ind w/ support from a female caregiver.
Race and ethnicity:
By 2025 more than 40% of all Am. With SES, sex, age, and referral status controlled few differences in the rate of children's psy disorders emerge in relation to race or ethnicity. Some minority groups even show less psychopathology after controlling for SES.
Race and ethnicity: Multiple disadvantages
- Marginalization (rejection of norms, no social cohesion). *Research has been insensitive and is likely to remain so for controlling possible diff in prevalence, age, course, and risk factors related to ethnicity and heterogeneity within groups.
Shyness: leadership and academic achiev in Chinese children in shanghai.
Child maltreatment
- Annually 1 million verified cases of abuse and neglect in US. Phone surveys: 1/3 (6 mill) of 10-16 yr olds exp physical and/or sexual assaults by family and other known community persons.
Non-accidental trauma
Ex. victim of violence at school or exposure in neighborhood. Phone survey: 12-17 yrs, 16% of boys and 19% of girls met criteria for PTSD, major dep episode, or substance abuse/dep in relation to acts of violence. These cost $94 bill/yr in US. More attention given for prevention.
Adolescents vs children
- Lifespan
Receiving more attention for prevention b/c have been neglected. - Most severe the longer continued; 20% of children w/ most chronic and serious disorders face sizable difficulties throughout their lives. Least likely to finish school and most to have social prob or psychiatric disorders in adulthood.
Ch. 2
- Etiology
- Transaction
- Considers how biol, psy, and env processes interact and produce the outcomes observed over time. - The dynamic interaction of child and env; both contribute to expression of disorder and cannot be separated. A transactional view regards both children and env as ACTIVE CONTRIBUTORS to beh.
- Continuity
- Implies that devel changes are gradual and quant, and future beh patterns can be predicted. Discon: abrupt, qualitative, and poor prediction. Ex. of contin: CD vs eating disorders.
Adaptational failure
- Organization of devel
Failure to master or progress in accomplishing devel milestones. - Early patterns of adaptation evolve over time w/ structure and transform into higher-level functions (ex. speech). This view implies an active, dynamic process of continual change and transformation.
- Sensitive periods
- Devel psychopathology
- Windows of time durign which env influeces on devel, both good and bad are enhanced. - Approach to describing and studying the disorders of childhood, adoles, and beyond that emphasizes the importance of devel processes and tasks. Uses abnormal devel to inform normal and vice versa. Includes interacting events for shaping.
Devel pyschopathology - integrating diff perspectives around a common core of phenomena and ques (made up over several microparadigms such as evolutionary or family sys). (Ex. of) Philosophical approach for studying phenomena which means it serves to coordinate other paradigms that deal w/ particular subsets of variables, methods, and explanations.
Maturation of brain
[Brain intrinscially shaped by effects of early exp, may be enduring]
- An organized, hierarical process that builds on earlier func, w/ brain struc restruc adn growing forever. Primitive areas mature in first 3 yrs for basic sensory and motor skills and undergo the most dramatic restruc early in life. Moreover, these perceptual centers, along w/ instinctive centers such as the limbic sys are strongly affected by early childhood esp and set foundation.
Frontal cortex...
[See brain struc p 40]
Planning, and the cerebrum for motor skills are not rewired until age 5 or 7. Major restruc of brain btwn ages 9 and 11 in relaton to pubertal devel and then throughout adolescence the brain once again prnes unnec synaptic connections. For some func the windows of influence are only beginning to close at that age, while for others they are beginnign to open.
Molecular genetics
Directly assess the assoc btwn variations in DNA seq and traits; these variations in gene seq are thought to case the variances in the trait. Ex. useful for genes in autism, ADHD, LD. Goal to det how these mutations alter how genes func.
Emotion regulation:
- Enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal, which is usu done for a specific goal. Ex. emotional reaction may lead to poor regulation; prompting need for more regul which infl further emotional expression.
Distinction btwn problems in regulation and dysregulation:
Regul problems involve weak or absent control struc. (devel tasks aided by the formation of healthy relat and other env resources) Dysreg means that existing control struc operate maladtively (result of interference in associated devel processes).
Primary dimensions of temperament:
1) Positive affect and approach: easy child. 2) Fearful or inhibited, slow to warm up 3) Negative affect or irritability.
Social learning and cognition
Cog mediators: may influence the beh directly or indirectly. Bandura: beh may be learned also indirectly through observational learning. - Social cog: how children think about themselves and others resultign in formation of mental rep of relat and soc world.
Attributational bias:
About the ability or the intention of others leads them to reinterpret the event in a way that fits their preexisting beliefs.