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98 Cards in this Set

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Kuhn's (1970) three distinct stages of scientific development :
Early Developmental Stage:
Normal Science
Period of Scientific Revolution
Steps taken by the Schools of Thought
Schools of thought, to be scientific, must first (1) define the phenomenon of Personality – 5 questions.
After defining the phenomenon, the scientist must decide (2) how they are going to study it?
Then the scientist must decide (3) what type of data is acceptable.
Step 4 Each theorist will wrestle with the following controversies
Philosophical view of the person or of human nature
Nature vs Nurture
How important is consistency of personality over time and across situations?
Is the concept of a “self” important in understanding and predicting personality
Step 4, Controversies, cont.
How important is the idea of varying states of consciousness to the understanding of personality, and what is the nature of our unconscious behavior
How important is the person’s past, present, and/or future on understanding their personality?
To evaluate each theory
Is it comprehensive (its bandwidth) and does it describe/predict particular aspects of personality (specificity or fidelity)
How parsimonious? – is it too complex and convoluted? Can we explain and predict the phenomenon with less complexity?
Relevance of research – does it generate ideas for research and can it generate research that is open to the negative test (prove the hypothesis is not true).
Step 1 Defining Personality
WHAT makes it up or WHAT is it composed of?- STRUCTURE
WHY do we do what we do? This looks into Motivation.- PROCESS
HOW does it form? Does it develop or change over time?
What is Psychopathology?
Can we change our personalities?
Structure
Is it behavior that makes us unique or different from others?
Is it what we think or feel?
Is it a result of conflicting psychological components that develop during our childhood?
Is it a product of our biological reactivity and the environmental experiences we have during our lifetime?
Process/motivation
Three types of motivation theory:
a. Pleasure/hedonic motivation
tension reduction models (hungry so eat)
-incentive models (want power so bully others)
b.growth or self-actualization motives
competence motivation
c. cognitive motives – need to understand or predict events in our world
ex. Dating the same type of person over and over again.
Growth and Development
Some theories look at Genetic determinants (Traits or Temperaments),
others look at biological instincts.
Others look at Environmental Determinants (Culture, social class, family, and/or peers). Questions include: What makes people in a family alike? What makes people in a family different?
Questions 4 and 5
What is psychopathology and what makes people change or resist change will be discussed by each School of thought.
Step 2 how they are going to study it?
3 primary types of research methodology
Clinical Case studies,
Correlational Studies, and
Experiments.
This is discussed in Chapter 2.
Step 3 What type of data is acceptable?
There are 4 types:
Life Data
Observational Data,
Test data and
Self Report.
Know and be able to recognize each of these!
The same research approach can use different types of data
Behavioralists and Humanists both use the experimental approach to scientific study, but they use very different types of data.
Certain types of data lend themselves to certain types of approaches to study. So T data is used often in Experimental approaches. However, 1 type of study can use more than 1 type of data. So experimental approaches are not limited to using T data. Experimenters can gather L,O data or S data, too.
Absolute Value of a Correlation
The strength of the relationship between the two variables is described statistically as a number – a correlation coefficient – symbolized by the letter r.
The absolute value of Correlation coefficients range from a value of 0 to 1.00 A correlation coefficient of 1.00 is the strongest value you can have. It is called a perfect correlation. It means that for every unit of change in Variable A, there is a corresponding unit of change in Variable B – and only one value for Variable A is associated with one and only one value in Variable B.
Absolute Value of a Correlation
Perfect correlations are rare in psychology
A correlation coefficient of 0 means there is no correlation between the two variables. They do not seem to be related at all.
A moderately high correlation in psychology is anything from .55 to .80. Correlations greater than .80 (.81-.99) are very exciting.
Definition of Clinical Study and examples
Clinical approach includes case study, interview, and analysis of personal documents
Potential Strengths (4)
1. leads to in depth study of individuals. Good for generating ideas and developing hypotheses 
2. Study the full complexity of person-environment relationships. - no artificiality 
3. Study the development and adjustment process (a type of longitudinal study) 
4. can be used for rare probs. or probs. that would be unethical to reproduce
(multi personality., Wild boy of Averron, coping with separating Siamese twins)
Potential Weaknesses (5)
of Clinical (case study, interview) ex. measurements for case study?
1.leads to unsystematic observation – measurements may not be reliable 
2. can have subjective interpretation of the data (researcher biases) 
3. Can have systematic alterations in the recall of information (subject biases) 
4. entangled relationships among variables - which came first. NO DETERMINING CAUSALITY. 
5. Very small sample size. Can’t generalize to the whole pop. with data gathered from a few people. Subject unrepresentative of people as a whole?
Correlational Studies
Def. – larger numbers of people are studied-
-they are observed, measured, interviewed, or complete questionnaires/tests, but there is no manipulation
-A great deal of information can be obtained from this approach, but the people, or participants, are taken “as they are - naturally occurring” and are not subjected to any kind of “treatment” or variable that is artificially controlled by the researcher.
You will still have an independent variable (how the groups are divided), and a dependent variable (the variable you are interested in measuring), but there is no manipulation
Correlational Studies, Examples
Ex. 1 Gender and Aggression – observe children and count aggressive behaviors displayed in playground. Divide them by male vs female. (Naturalistic Study)
Ex. 2 Gender and Aggression – ask female and male college students to list the types of TV shows they watch and how much time they watch them.
Problems with the term “Correlational” study
People mistakenly think that any study with Correlational statistics is a Correlational study, and this is not true. All 3 approaches CAN use Correlational statistics.
Potential Strengths (6)
1. Large sample size =get a broad base of people so better able to generalize to people as a whole. 
2. can study a wide range of variables about the people studied. 
3. can study rels among these many variables. 
4. can do research that would be unethical to do or reproduce in a lab. 
5. allows for research that uses variables that cannot be manipulated (i.e. shoe size) 
6. no artificial setting - can see the person-environment interaction
Potential Weaknesses (3)
1. less control over the variables. You get what is in the environment. 
2. cannot infer causation -only have relationships that are associational. Problems of Direction and Problem of 3rd variable problem. 
3. problems with reliability and validity IF use self-report. (See discussion pages 63-64) (verbal, self assessments are always questionable b/c we cannot judge ourselves well, however maybe just as useful as other data, same scrutiny)
Experimental Study- Intervention, observation, and control
Def. -1. Standardized procedures 
2. Control group
(at least one Independent Variable will be treatment vs control) 
3. Field research 
4. How is field research different from naturalistic research
Potential Strengths (4)
1. manipulate certain variables and control others. You know exactly what you are investigating. 
2. data is recorded objectively 
3. cause-effect relationships can be determined. 
4. more powerful statistics are available.
Potential Limitations (4)
1. artificial setting - does not always accurately reproduce the complexity of the natural envi. This limits generalizability. 
2. some phenomena cannot be studied 
3. Experimental bias, i.e. can foster 
demand characteristics and  
experimenter effects  
(these can be minimized with careful planning of the experiment.) 
4. Your data is group means, so statements are dealing with averages of your groups, not individuals.
Summary Since each approach has strengths and limitations, it is important to use all three approaches in developing and testing our personality theories.
Clinical studies
1.generate ideas about what to study
2. can show examples of when a theory is not supported.
3. They are also good for studying rare phenomenon that could not otherwise be studied
Correlational studies can
1. show if a theory holds up “in the real world” when no variables are artificially controlled.
2.They are also good for issues that cannot be controlled or manipulated
 
Experimental studies show which variables cause other variables to change.
Ethics
Psychology has grown and developed over our short history with respect to ethics. Your book mentions Zimbardo’s and Milgram’s experiments. Later, you will learn of Watson’s experiments which would be considered unethical, now. In the field of Biology, there are the Tuskeegee experiments. Outside review boards now oversee and approve every psychological experiment.
Reliability
reliability refers to the replicability of an observation, finding, or test score. If an observation, finding, or test score is reliable, then the same observation, etc. will happen again and again. The phenomenon is stable, consistent, and dependable.
Reliability coefficient
Reliability is expressed as a reliability coefficient – the correlation coefficient that describes the strength and direction of the correlation between the scores of the first testing or measurement and the scores of the second testing or measurement.
Validity
Def. - validity refers to the extent to which our observation, finding, or test score actually reflect or mean what we think they do.
4 Types (actually only 3)
Types of Validity
1. Face
2. Content
3. Criterion –
predictive
Concurrent
discriminative
4. Construct
Reliability of types of data
L and T data tend to be very reliable – everytime I look at your elementary school achievement test scores, they are the same; everytime I measure your reaction time, it is reasonably the same.
O and S data have more potential problems with reliability
Potential Problems with Self Report Data, whether you use it in Clinical, Correlational, or Experimental Approaches:
Faking good
Intentionally, or due to Social desirability
Faking Bad
cry for help or malingering
Acquiesence
Nay-Sayers
I. Freud's contributions to / effect on psychology and society
A. Importance of childhood
1. Children are different from adults

2. Childhood experiences are important in formulating adult personality
I. Freud's contributions to / effect on psychology and society
B. Different levels of consciousness or awareness
 C. Explained aspects of normal behavior
 D. Discussed and normalized sexual drive
 E. "Blaming the victim?”
F. established that talking about the problems and establishing a relationship with the therapist as the cornerstone to psychotherapy.
II. Freud's personal history – see book
Theorists’ own experiences, beliefs, and values often influences their definition of Personality, choice of research methodology, choice of data, and answers to the value-ladened questions, such as “What is the view of human nature” or “How important is Nature vs Nurture”
III. Structure of personality
2 versions: Topographical model and later
Structural model
Topographical
1.conscious – reality principle;secondary process thinking
2. Unconscious – pleasure principle; primary process thinking
3. Preconscious –primary and secondary censorship
Structural model
1. Id-– unconscious, pleas. Prin., primary process thinking – wish fulfillment
2.Ego-uncon., precon., and con. Uses reality principle and secondary process thinking.
Superego-uncon., precon., and con. Uses reality principle and secondary process thinking. Ego Ideal and Conscience
Conservation of Energy
Each personality structure requires energy and draws this energy from one another. The more energy the id has, the less for the other two, etc. Think of people you know who may be mostly id, mostly ego, or mostly superego. The flow of energy between these structures is a dynamic process = psychodynamic theory.
IV. Process
1. Instincts
A.Energy - life or libido (Eros) death (Thanatos).
B. Conflict - the ego and its “Three Harsh Masters”
1. anxiety- 3 types – one from each “Harsh Master”
IV. Process
2.defense mechanisms- 5 of them were Sigmund Freud’s
a. repression 
b. reaction formation
c. Projection 
d. Regression- (usually acute)
e. Fixation (usually chronic) – some personality traits arise from fixations at various developmental stages. Caused by too little or too much gratification or a trauma at that stage.
V. Growth and Development
A. Growth and development of the Thinking process – from primary to secondary  
B. Growth and development of the expression of the instincts - stages
Stages 1. oral
birth to 2 years fixation leads to drinking, smoking, overeating, nailbiting, etc. Oral Personality traits leads to oral dependent or oral aggressive personality traits.
 
Stages, cont. 2. anal
2 to 3 years
 
fixation leads to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Anal Personality traits are anal retentive (see triad of traits on page 124) or anal expulsive personality traits
Stages, cont. 3. phallic
3 to 5 years 
Ends with successful identification with same sexed parent and the formation of the superego. 
fixation leads to “inappropriate” sexual identity/attraction or unresolved Oedipal conflict. Phallic Personality traits = a woman who is very flirtatious or very sexually promiscuous or a man who is overly “macho” or sexually promiscuous.
Stages, cont.
4. latency 6 to 8 years 
5. genital adolescence onward 
Review: Why did Freud say that our basic personality was formed by age 5?
Psychopathologies- 8
1. oral stage pathologies- oral aggressive/ oral dependent Personality traits or fixations - drinking/drug abuse, smoking, overeating/ eating disorders,
2. Anal stage pathologies- Anal stage personality traits –retentive or expulsive and Fixations- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Psychopathologies- 8
3. Phallic stage pathologies – fixations described above, Phallic Personality traits, or multiple personality disorder, conversion disorder
 4. Repressed memories 
5. id impulses that the ego can’t control (excessive sexual urges or behaviors/ excessive aggressive urges or behaviors)
Psychopathologies- 8
6. superego dictates the ego can’t maintain (excessive guilt) 
7. the 3 types of anxiety 
8. overused or ill-used defense mechanisms.
Discuss Rifkin
Process of Change
free association - "talking cure“
dream analysis
interpreting transference issues
a.provide a Corrective Emotional Experience  
interpreting Freudian slips/ accidents/ symbolic behavior 
Hypnosis
Personality testing - projective-
1. Rorschach
2. TAT
Nature Nurture Continuum
nature, person, internal
1. Sigmund Freud
2. Anna Freud
3. Erik Erikson
4. Jung
5 Object Relations
6. Neo-Freudians (Horney, Fromm, and Sullivan)
7. Ego psychologists
8 Adler
Psychodynamic Theorists
LESS ATTENTION TO
id and instincts, purely intrapsychic causes and conflicts, earliest adulthood, psychosexual
Psychodynamic Theorists
MORE ATTENTION TO
ego and self, social, interpersonal causes,
and relationship issues
later developments
throughout the life span Social forces and positive strivings: the role of culture and society
Psychoanalytic Theorist
Sigmund Freud
Anna Freud
Erik Erikson
Carl Jung
Psychodynamic theorists
All psychoanalytic theorists
Alfred Adler
Neo-Freudians
Object Relations
Ego Psychologists
Anna Freud
3 contributions
1. Strengthened the ego and normalized defense mechanisms
2. Emphasis on other areas of child development led to important contributions in Child Law, Pediatrics, and Child Psychology
3. Added 6 defense mechanisms
Anna Freud 2. Other areas in childhood development
Dependence vs independence
self-orientation (egocentricity) vs other- orientation
Self-doubt vs self-mastery
Anna Freud 3. added 6 defense mechanisms
Denial
Displacement
Rationalization
Undoing
Sublimation
isolation
Erik Erikson (see ch. 3 pages 105-108)
Stages of development
Emphasized play as “the royal road to the unconscious” in children vs dreams
ERIKSON'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Oral (0-2)and anal (2-3)
Basic trust vs mistrust; anal: autonomy vs shame and doubt
Phallic (3-5) and Latency (6-8)
Initiative vs guilt; industry vs inferiority for latency
Genital (adolescence, until 20)
Identity vs role confusion
ERIKSON'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Oral (0-2)and anal (2-3)
Basic trust vs mistrust; anal: autonomy vs shame and doubt
Added three stages: Early adulthood, adulthood, and later yrs (for personality devel)
Early adulthood (INTIMACY VS ISOLATION) ADULTHOOD (GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION), LATER YEARS (INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR)
Phallic (3-5) and Latency (6-8)
Initiative vs guilt; industry vs inferiority for latency
Ego Crises
Along with sexual and aggressive instincts expressing themselves in different areas of the body, the ego develops in stages, too.
Each stage presents the ego with specific social conflicts or crises that must be resolved.
Positive and negative qualities can be formed. The more positive qualities formed, the better chance the ego has of meeting the challenges of the next stage’s crisis.
Oral stage
Birth to 2 years old
Breast feeding or bottle feeding
Ego Crisis is Trust vs mistrust
Genital (adolescence, until 20)
Identity vs role confusion
Added three stages: Early adulthood, adulthood, and later yrs (for personality devel)
Early adulthood (INTIMACY VS ISOLATION) ADULTHOOD (GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION), LATER YEARS (INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR)
Anal Stage
2-3 years old
Potty training
Ego crisis is autonomy vs shame and doubt
Ego Crises
Along with sexual and aggressive instincts expressing themselves in different areas of the body, the ego develops in stages, too.
Each stage presents the ego with specific social conflicts or crises that must be resolved.
Positive and negative qualities can be formed. The more positive qualities formed, the better chance the ego has of meeting the challenges of the next stage’s crisis.
Phallic Stage
3-5 years old
Resolution of the Oedipal Conflict
Ego crisis is initiative vs guilt
Latency Stage
6 years old to 12 (prepubescence)
Elementary and Middle school
Ego Crisis is Industry vs Inferiority
Oral stage
Birth to 2 years old
Breast feeding or bottle feeding
Ego Crisis is Trust vs mistrust
Genital Stage
12-20 years old
Adolescence and pubescence
Ego Crisis is Identity vs role confusion
Anal Stage
2-3 years old
Potty training
Ego crisis is autonomy vs shame and doubt
Early Adulthood
20 – 30 years old
Finding a mate
Ego Crisis is Intimacy vs Isolation
Phallic Stage
3-5 years old
Resolution of the Oedipal Conflict
Ego crisis is initiative vs guilt
Adulthood
30-65 years old
Ego Crisis – Generativity vs Stagnation
Latency Stage
6 years old to 12 (prepubescence)
Elementary and Middle school
Ego Crisis is Industry vs Inferiority
Later Years
65 years and older
Retirement
Ego Crisis is Integrity vs Despair
Genital Stage
12-20 years old
Adolescence and pubescence
Ego Crisis is Identity vs role confusion
Summary
Same psychosexual and internal conflicts as Sigmund
Adds psychosocial conflicts that the ego must resolve
Failing to resolve the psychosocial conflict of one stage means the ego is stuck in that stage and cannot develop the later abilities
Early Adulthood
20 – 30 years old
Finding a mate
Ego Crisis is Intimacy vs Isolation
Carl Jung Ch. 4
Collective vs Personal Unconscious
Archetypes- mother earth, witches, godly father, demon, anima, animus, self
Introversion/extroversion
Adulthood
30-65 years old
Ego Crisis – Generativity vs Stagnation
Later Years
65 years and older
Retirement
Ego Crisis is Integrity vs Despair
Summary
Same psychosexual and internal conflicts as Sigmund
Adds psychosocial conflicts that the ego must resolve
Failing to resolve the psychosocial conflict of one stage means the ego is stuck in that stage and cannot develop the later abilities
Carl Jung Ch. 4
Collective vs Personal Unconscious
Archetypes- mother earth, witches, godly father, demon, anima, animus, self
Introversion/extroversion
Self Archetype
Persona
Introversion/Extroversion
Anima/Animus
M/F Shadow
What do psychodynamic theorists have in common?
All believe in a dynamic energy system, fueled by death and life instincts, flowing between id, ego and superego
All believe in the first 5 psychosexual stages of development (some add more) and that childhood is important.
All believe in the personal unconscious and that much of our personality is unconscious
All believe conflict and anxiety is important and that defense mechanisms protect us from that anxiety
What do psychodynamic theorists have in common?
All believe that much of therapy involves bringing the unconscious conscious (vary as to how much of therapy involves this)
All believe that much of therapy involves providing a Corrective Emotional Experience
All believe that transference will occur, if it is necessary
How are psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories different?
Psychodynamic theorists focus more on relationships with siblings, peers, and people outside of the family
Psychodynamic theorists focus more on the role of culture on the development of Personality
Psychodynamic theorists work more with the conscious ego than unconscious aspects of personality
How they are different, cont
Psychodynamic therapists will have you sit up and will sit facing you; they will tell you more about themselves and dialogue more with you.
Psychodynamic theorists see people more positively, as capable of change; adaptive, creative, and striving for success