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23 Cards in this Set

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Motions: consist of patterns of ....................... response, are ....................-typical behaviours. In humans these responses are accompanied by .................
physiology, species, feelings
Emotions as response patterns. The emotional response has 3 components: 1.B.....................2.A...................3H.....................
behavioural, autonomic, hormonal
Behavioural:
muscle movements appropriate to the situation that elicits them
Autonomic:
facilitate the behaviours and allows for quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movement
Hormonal:
reinforce the autonomic responses – Adrenal medulla secretes E and NE which increase blood flow to muscle and cause nutrients stored in the
body to be utilised
The Autonomic Nervous System: S..................... division. Associated with........ Derives from........
Sympathetic, - Associated with energy expenditure - Derives from thoracic and lumbar
levels of the spinal cord
The Autonomic Nervous System: P....................... division. Associated with........ Derives from........
Parasympathetic, Associated with energy conservation - Derives from cranial and sacral levels of the spinal cord
role of the amygdala • The 3 components of an emotional response (provoked by aversive stimuli) are controlled by separate neural systems, but all three are integrated by the amygdala. • Amygdala is part of the.......................
limbic system
The limbic system is considered phylogenetically old cortex and is primarily involved in .................... and ..................
motivation, emotion
Emotion and the central nucleus of the amygdala: Threat stimuli increase ..................firing within central nucleus of the amygdala
• ............... of central nucleus diminish emotional
responses: – Reduced fear responses to threat stimuli – Reduced chance of developing ulcers to stress – Reduced levels of stress hormones • Electrical stimulation of central nucleus ................
fear and agitation
neural, Lesions, induces
If neutral stimuli are paired with the .............. stimulus, animals can learn to be..............
feared, afraid
Augmented startle reflex
physiological response- reflection of the system which is protecting from an adversive situation (like being frightened) - THINK OF RAT EXPERIMENT
Amygdala and fear in humans: Stimulation (during surgery).
Autonomic responses associated with fear can be produced by stimulating various parts of the brain (e.g. ........................), but only stimulation of the amygdala results in the patient experiencing the feeling OF ...........
hypothalamus, fear
Amygdala and fear in humans: Lesions of the amygdala result in;
Decrease in fear responses to fearful stimuli – Poorer acquisition of CER – Absence of augmented startle response
Amygdala and fear in humans: Imagery studies;
Amygdala shown to be active when subjects recall violent and
frightening films, but not neutral ones
Brain Circuits for Aggressive
Behaviour: Inputs from the .......................... and .........................are integrated by the Periaqueductal Grey Matter (PAG) – Dorsal PAG – defensive rage – Ventral PAG – predation
amygdala, hypothalamus
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which includes the medial orbitofrontal cortex and
the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, is specially important in the capacity of humans to analyse and react .......................... to complex situations involving other people, .................. rules, .........................experiences, and memories as well as judgments and ......................
emotionally, societal, personal, inferences
Damaging the prefrontal cortex; seen in the case of .................... ..........
Phineas gage
...................... change pos accident
personality
Removing the prefrontal cortex: • Jacobsen, Wolf and Jackson (1935) removed the entire ............. lobes of a chimpanzee with emotional disturbances • Brickner (1936) performed a similar procedure in
a ........... with a frontal lobe tumour; this did not result in intellectual .................
- frontal. - human, impairment
Egas Moniz
developing the surgical procedure termed leucotomy (also known as lobotomy), for which he became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize in 1949 (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess).
Trans-orbital Leucotomy, the .........pick procedure. Outcome
• Tooth & Newton (1961) • 10,365 prefrontal lobotomies – ......% “improvement”– ....% mortality – ....% epilepsy – 1.5% marked disinhibition
ice, 70, 6, 1
Patients were not only no longer .................. by their mental conflicts but also seem to have little capacity for any ...................... experiences - pleasurable or otherwise. Resulted in ........................ changes including childishness, dull, a....................., listless, without drive or initiative, flat, lethargic, placid and unconcerned, docile, needing pushing,passive, lacking in spontaneity, without aim or purpose, preoccupied and d.....................
distressed, emotional, personality, apathetic, dependent