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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
axon
The long tail-like part of the neuron that serves as the cell's transmitter
Dendrite
the fibers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons
Myelin sheath
An insulating material that protects the axon and helps to speed up neural transmission
Soma
The cell body of a neuron
Terminal buttons
The tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals important to neural transmission
Synapse
The small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers that relay infromation from one neuron to the next
GABA
Neurotransmitter that may play a role in the regulation of anxiety; it generally produces inhibitory effects
Seratonin
Neurotransmitter that has been linked to sleep, dreaming, general arousal, and may also be involved in some psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that plays multiple roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the excitation of muscle contractions
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter that often leads to inhibitory effects; decreased levels have been linked to Parkinson's disease and increased levels have been linked to schizophrenia
Endorphins
Morphinelike chemicals that act as the brain's natural painkillers
Endocrine system
A network of glands that uses the bloodstream, rather than neurons, to send chemical messages that regulate growth and other internal functions
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord
Somatic system
The collection of nerves that transmits information toward the brain and connects the skeletal muscles in order to initiate movement; part of the peripheral nervous system
Automatic nervous system
The collection of nerves that controls the heart rate, digestion, blood pressure, etc. Part of the peripheral nervous system