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179 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensory memory
processes external stimuli conciously
processed information into our working memory

maintaining information in memory

recovering information from memory
working memory aka:

by who
short term memory

aktinson and shiffrin
further processing working memory encodes it into ____
long term memory
automatic processing
unconcious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and well learned information, such as word meanings

process information unconciously (YELLOW, BLUE)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain conciousness or to encode it for storage
grouping information into something meaningful
next in line effect
we recall peoples names who state them most recently because we focus on our own performance
how good is memory retained when processed right before sleep
how well is information retained when learned about an hour before sleep
very well
listening to taped information
no information is retained
spacing effect
distributed study or practice yields better long term retention
primary effect
middle items
recency effect

recalled ok
not recalled
recalled well

serial position effect
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning (ie of a poem) (including the meaning of words)

yields the best memory
self reference effect
we remember adjectives that describe ourselves well
effects of learning meaningful information
retained better
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing

makes information unique and stand out

recalling extremely high and low moments in life

thompson + peterson
memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
effective way of chunking

roy g biv
chunked numbers into meaningful sets
iconic memory

momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image lasting no longer than a few tenths of a second

echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, information can still be recalled for 3 or 4 seconds
hierarchies (ch 25)
dividing information into organized levels
short term memory
low capacity
store information for about 20 seconds
sensory memory
high capacity
holds information for less than a second
long term memory
relativley permanent storage of memory

unlimited capacity
atkinson, shiffrin model for memory
sensory, short term, long term memory

pay attention to, reharsal
storing memory
memory is not stored in specific parts of the brain
kandel schwartz experiment
examined caifornia sea snail, determined that seratonin was released
long term potentiation

increase is a synapses firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.

gary lynch-basis of learning
potential drugs that can stimulate memory retention
CREB, glutamate
emotion processing clusters in the limbic system boost activity in the brains memory forming areas
strong emotions vs weak emotions
strong emotions form strong memories that are hard to forget
prolonged stress=
corrodes neural connections and shrinking the hippocampus
the loss of memory
implicit vs explicit memory
retention independent of conciouis recollection

memory of facts and experiences that one can can conciously know and declare
helps process explicit memories for storage
memories of the past activate what part of the brain
frontal, temporal lobes
forms and stores information implicit memories created by classical conditioning
measure of memory where a person must retrieve information learned earlier
a measure of memory in which a person need identify previous items
memory mesaure that asseses time saved from learning something a second time.
retrevial cues
anchor points you can use to access the target information when you want to retrieve it later
the activation, often unconciously, or particular associations in memory
godden baddeley experiment
learned that divers who learned information under water recalled more words when tested in same place
deja vu
cues from current situation may subconciously triger retrevial of an earlier experience
emotions and memory

state dependent memory
recall information best when in the same moode

depressed, drunk people dont remember anything in any state
mood congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad moodee
unitized sets of features
social, factual, moode

recalling different aspects on an event
several pieces of information tightly held together
elaborate rehearsal
maintenance rehersal
critically thinking about information vs rehearsing information shallowly
tolvings long term memory
-episodic: i remember
-semantic: i know

ex- recipes
anoetic memory
stochastic independence
remember episodic but now semantic

remember semantic but not procedural
peg word system
requires that you remember a jingle to use words to recall what you want to remembers
method of loci
remember long passages by visualizing going through a location .

use visual cues
three sins of forgetting
absent mindedness
three sins of disortion
one sin of intrusion
can age effect encoding efficency
forgetting curve

rapid drop in retention that later levels off

proactive interference
retroactive interference

jenkins + dallenbach experiment
something learned earlier disrupts something learned later

something you presently learn earlier disrupts memory of something later

those who slept after learning material retained it better

learning new information makes other information in memory harder to find

memory simply fades over time if not rehearsed
cue dependent memory
information is still in memory, but we cant find it becuase of the wrong cues
failure to encode information
failure to commit info to memory

not paying attention

never gets into system
frueds theory of repression
we intentionally supress tragic memories
positive transfer
when old and new information compete with each other that forgetting occurs
elizabeth loftus experiment
two cars hitting each other, how fast were they going when the SMASHED or HIT
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event
DRM procedure
remembering things that didnt happen
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced. heart of many false memories
suggestive questioning
causes source amnesia
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

ball, angry

mental image or best example of a category,

searching for solution: random
just trying things

slow process
searching for solution:
methodical, logical rule or procedure that garuntees solving a particular problem
searching for solution:
simple thinking strategy that often allows us to ake judgments and solve problems efficiently

where this brain activity occurs
sudden and novel realization to a problem

right temporal lobe, above ear
confirmation bias
we rather look for information that confirms our answers rather than reject it.

mental set

functional fixedness
inability to see a problem in a fresh perspective

thinking of problem in an obvious way

using tools only in their intended way- non creative
representativeness heuristics

we choose things that appear more likeable

kahneman + tversky
availability heuristic

estimating the likleyhood of events based on their availability in our minds

kahneman + tversky

people who are losing think they are going to win

people who are winning think they will continue to win

kahnemn + tversky
we become confident of our answers even if they are wrong

we look for confirmation in what we believe

if making a public commitment, it is very hard to change our statements
they way an issue is posed; how an issue can signficantly affect decisions and judgements
belief bias
tendency for ones preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes making invalid conclusions
belief perserverance
clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
subdivisions of already existing categories
forming concepts by def
set characteristics
spoken, written, or signed words
smallest distintive sound unit
smallest unit that carries meaning
rules that enables us to communicate and understand others.
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, and words in a given language
rules of combining words
skinner and operant learning
we can explan language development with familiar learning principles: association, imitation, and reinforcement
correlation between age and ability to learn a language
harder as older
age and language conclusion
when a young brain does not learn any language, its language learning capacity never fully develops
process in which children acquire language
one word
two word
telegraphic speech
overgeneralizing language
applying rules that dont work

petted, holded
linguistic determinism

whards hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

different words for similar meanings
bilingual advantage
children who know two languages are better at inhibiting their attention to irrelevant information
tense errors
language aquisition device
language switch box
language's effects on thinking
thinking affects our language, which affects our thought
animals ability to speak
they form concepts
when does non useful language dissapear
end of babbling stage
do animals know language?
no, only humans can master verbal or signed expression of complex rules of syntax
theory of mind
when retrieving food, humans prefer someone who witnesses it being hidden
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
intelligence and reification
viewing an abstact immaterial concepts as if it were a concrete thing
factor analysis
procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test.
general intelligence (g)

general intelligence factors that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligenct test

charles spearman
LL thurstone

is there a correlation
intelligence is made up of 7 abilities

-word fluency
-verbal comprehension
-spatial ability
-perceptual speed
-numerical ability
-inductive reasong

yes, a small g factor
howard gardner
intelligence comes in different forms (8 types of intelligence)

-logical, mathematical
savant syndrome & howard gardner
someone can be retarded in all areas except for one, which they excel in
robert sternberg
3 kinds of intelligences

-creative intelligence
-practical intelligence
emotional intelligence

gardners criticism
ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions

it is a skill rather than an intelligence
ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable
sternberg's 5 factors of creativity
expertise: well developed knowledge base

imaginative thinking: ability to see things in new ways

adventuresome personality: seek new experiences rather than following the pack

intrinsic motivation: motivated to be creative within

creative environment: creativity blooms in a creative and supportive environment
measuring intelligence through brain anatomy
neural plasticity- ability during childhood and adolescence to adapt and grow neural connections in repsonse to their environment

highly educated people have more brain synapses
intelligence and perceptual speed
intelligent people tend to have slightly faster reaction times
convergent vs divergent thinking
intelligence test solutions vs imaginative thinking
need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal
complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a spieces and is unlearned
drive reduction theories
physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

(the wanting to satisfy a need)
tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

smell of food, threat of dissaproval
needs (push or pull
optimum arousal
aim not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels or arousal
Abraham maslow
hierarchy of needs

belongingness and love needs
esteem needs
self actualization needs
washburn experiment
balloon in stomach: stomach contractions send signals to the brain making us aware of hunger
tsang experiment
removal of the stomach does not eliminate hunger= there are other bodily functions that signal hunger
insulin and glucose
an increase in insulin reduces glucose levels, signaling hunger
in what part of the brain is hunger brought on by?

in what part of the brain is hunger supressed?
lateral hypothalamus

ventromedial hypothalamus
orexin increase by ___ causes ____ hunger
gherlin increase by ___ causes ___hunger
insulin increase by ___ causes ___ hunger
pancrease/ incresed
letpin increase by____ causes ____ hunger
fat cells/decreases
PYY increase by ____ causes ___ hunger
digestive tract/decreases
set point theory
the body's weight thermostat regulated by the hypothalamus
basal metabolic rate
rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest
memory and hunger
remembering when we last ate has an effect on hunger
taste preference
body chemistry and environmental factors together influence not only when we feel hungry but also what we feel hungry for
hot cultures like hot spices
hotter climates use spices for bacteria control
what we crave when feeling tense
cabs: boost level of seretonin, which has calming effects
anorexia nervosa
normal weight person continues to lose weight while still feeling fat
bulimia nervosa
episodes of overeating followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise.
excessivley overweightness which can lead to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and back problems
reasons for eating disorders
repsonse of the whole organism involving
1. physiological arousal
2. expressive behaviors
3. conscious experience
james lange theory

see bear > specific physiological reaction > cognitive appraisal

+ spinal cord injuries
+behavior feedback hypothesis
+brain reactions may be uniqe

-physiological reactions are the autonomic level are the same
canon bard theory

see bear >> physiological reaction along with fear/emotional response

+physiological reactions at autonomic level are not unique
shacter singer theory of emotion

two factor theory

see bear > physiological reaction + cognitive label > fear

to experience emotion, one must be physically aroused and cognitivley label the arousal

epinephrine shot- explaining emotions to drugs and not giving it a cognitive label
emotions and autonomic nervous system
sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (non arousing)responses to situations
different emotions and brain activity
differnt amygdala stimulation= fear or anger

depressed people experience more right prefrontal cortex activity

happines- left frontal lobe

physiological brain differnces help explain why we experience stimuli so differently
arousal and congnition
arousal fuels emotion- cognition channels it
current view of emotional responses
direct path towards fear, and appraisal of situation before fear
under what level of arousal do we best perform activities?
moderate arousal in order to not be nervous but also alert
cognitive appraisal
emotions are effected by what/how we think of something
spillover effect
previous arousal can enhance or reduce current arousals
guilty knowledge test
ask a suspect information he would only know if he were at the scene of the crime
we read fear and anger mostly from the ___ and happiness from the ____
eyes, mouth
introverts vs extroverts
introverts do better at reading minds while extraverts are themselves easier to read
physically abused childern detect ___ as ___
anger and fear
judith hall's findings
women are better than men at reading people's emotional cues
are women or men defined as being more empathetic?

empathy- putting yourself into someones shoes
gestures and cultures
gestures' meanings vary by culture
how did our ancestors survive without communicating through words
conveyed emotions through body language
emotion is best understand not only as a biological and cognitive function,but also a __ __ ___
social-cultural phenonmeon
william james
facial expressions can induce certain moodes by simply acting them out
behavior feedback
going through certain kinds of emotions awakens certain motions

(ex. walking depressed or walking happy)
facial feedback hypothesis
we amplify emotions by activating muscles associated with certain states
americans vs japanese and emotion expression
japanese tend to hide their expressions more
feigned smiles vs genunie smiles
made more abruptly, last longer