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120 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
freud and free association
method to explore the unconcious where person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrasing
frueds theory:

thoughts and actions are attributed to unconcious motives and conflicts. treatment= exposing + interpret these unconcious tensions
unconcious (freud and contemporary psychologists)

preconcious area
frued- resovior of uunacceptable thoughts, feelings, and emotions

cont- information processing of which we are unaware

area where info is stored temporarily where we can bring them back to memory
primitive feelings where people want to satisfy unconcious, biological feelings for instant satisfactions and gratification
contact with reality

negogiates with superego + id
satisfy needs in a socially acceptable way
morality, cultural rules

do the right things
psychosexual stages
child development stages where id seeks pleasure seeking energies from distinct zones
oral stage

pleasure centers on mouth (sucking, biting, chewing)

0-2 years
anal stage

bowel, bladder movement. demands for control

2-3 years
phallic stage

pleasure zone is the genetials. coping with incestuous sexual feelings

3-6 years
latency stage

dormant sexual feelings
6 to puberty
genital stage

maturation of sexual interests
puberty on
freuds psycholsexual stage acronym
oedipus complex
boys defense for his mother
identification connected to child personality development
stage where parents' values are incorporated into a childs superego
lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at a psychosexual stage that is unresolved
defense mechanisms
egos protective methods of reducing anxiety and distorting reality
banishing anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
anxiety leads to a return to an infintle psycholsexual stage
reaction formation
express the opposite of feelings that are causing anxiety

i love him vs i hate him
people attribute their own threatening impulses to others
a self-justifying explination for something that threatening that happens to them

bad grades to bad teacher
shifting anger of someone to an object, a safer outlet (beating up a doll)
forming an alliance with people with same views
alfred adler and karen horney
social, not sexual tensions are critical in personality formation

conquer childhood feelings of inferiority for power

penis envy
carl jung

collective unconscious
common resovior of images derived from our species universal experiences= similar myths and images + spiritual concerns in differnt cultures
projective tests
personality tests, such as Rorscharch or TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of ones inner dynamics
murray and the thematic apperception test
people view ambiguous pictures and make up stories
rorscharch inblok test
analyzation of peoples feelings by their interpretation of the inkblots
terror management theory
faith in ones worldview + pursuit of self esteem is caused by a rooted fear of death
individual characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
freuds analysis of dreams
thought this was a window into the past

dreams only make sense of the present
freuds analysis of hypnosis
doesnt work. people make stuff up if they cant remember the truth
maslow and self actualization
the process of fufilling our potential after all other needs have been met
carl rogers 3 growth conditions

uncoditional positive regard
genuineness, accceptance, empathy

attitude of total acceptance
problems with maslow and rogers, and what they actually influence
no scientific evidence

influence therapy
freuds theory of repression
suppressing painful memories, proven not true
sigmund freud studied the
unconcious processes
humanistic theorists have been criticized for
underestimating the bad of society
people who fall short of an ideal self concept experience...
a neg self concept
characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assesed by individual inventories and peer reports

peoples characteristic behaviors and concious motives
isabel briggs meyers exam
myers briggs type indicator
traits and factor analysis
identify clusters of related items (excitement + jokes = extraversion)
personality and brain chemistry/genetics (MAO)
MAO- excitement neurotransmitter

extroverts: lower MAO levels, need more stimulation

introverts: higher MAO levels, need less stimulation
personality inventories
questionaires covering a wide range of feelings and behaviors to asses several traits at once
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
surverys abnormal personality tendencies, but still illusrates a good way of developing a personality inventory.
emperically derived test
test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
McCrae and Costa

the big 5

person-situation controversy
we look for genunine personality traits that occur over time AND situations
epstein and averagness of personality
average outgoingness, happiness, or carelessness over many situations is predictable
traits and preferences
affect our helath, thinking, and job performance

music preferences
dorm room and offices
personal websites
social cognitive perspective

behavior influenced by the interaction between person (and their thinking) and their social context

persons and the situations work together.
reciprocal determinism


people choices of environments, howe we interpet events and react
interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

we are both the products and architects of our environments
personal control
sense of being controlling or controlled by our environment
external locus of control

internal locus of control
perception that environment controls fate

percpetion that we control our own fate
learned helplessness
hopelessness ans passive resignation we larned when unable to repeatedly avoid aversive events

uncontrollable bad events>>percieved lack of control>>generalized helpless behavior
tyrrany of choice
too many choices makes us feel uneasy
attributional style
attriubting poor perfoamnce to lack of ability or something beyond their control
conclusion on how to percieve oneself
with modest confidence
spotlight effect
overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance
self serving bias
readiness to percieve oneself favorably
self esteem and violence
people with high self esteems will be more protective of their image
being subtly strategic
no one likes me >> not everyone has met you
preparing for failure
coach making losses understandable and victories notable
old self perspective
chump yesterday, chAmp today
defensive self esteem
focusing on sustaining oneself, which makes failures and criticism feel threatening
secure self esteem
accepting who we are

firm belief in one self, accepting our own shortcoming
barnum effect

how does psychology differ from horoscopes
our tendency to believe genetic descriptions of people (palm reading)

reliability: same results through different tests
validity: reinforce test results with real life decisions
excessive optimism risk
can blind us to real risks
self efficacy
how much control we think we have over the environment. learned expectation of success
walter michelle

self regulation
we have things we are good and bad at
how we see the environment
do we think we can induce change
what do we think is important
how willing are we to put off small rewards for long term, bigger ones
psychological disorders

3 Ds
deviant (to culture), disstressful (to self or others), and dysfunctional (makes it hard to carry out everyday activities) beavioral patterns
variations in classyfying disorders
vary by culture and time
medical model
concept that mental disorders can be diagnosed on basis of symptoms, and cured through therapy
how disorders are classified and identified as
DSM IV: diagnosis + statistical manual from american psychiatric association
david rosenhan and labelling
labelling people with a disorders causes peoeple to LOOK for problems
correlation of poverty and disorders

social drift
some poverty causes disorders (substance abuse, depression) and some disorcers cause poverty (schizophrenia)

poverty caused by mental disorder
anxiety disorders
disorders characterized by distressing, persistant anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
state of anxiety where person is apprehensive with no reason
panic disorders

disorders of short, intense dread of something

avoiding situations that are hard to escape when having an attack (being in a crowd)
depression and seratonin/dopamine

+ fatty acids
a lack of these as well can cause depression

a lack of "good fats" causes depression
anxiety disorder makred by persistant irrational fear and avoidance of specific items
biopsychological approach
all heavior is caused by genetics and experience
depression and frontal lobe, hippocampus
less frontal lobe activity, stress damages hippocampus
+/- of diagnostic labels
+ allows doctors to communicate about diseases

- label bias perceptions, change reality (influence self esteem)
disorder characterized by unwanted repeptitive thoughts and actions
haunting, lingering memories of traumatic events and experiences
depresion and sociocultural events
high societal exprectation, neg life events can induce depression
post traumatic growth
a developed greater apprectiation for life, more meaningful relationships

delusional thinking
disturbed perceptions
innaprporiate emotions/actions
sociocultural effects of anxiety disorders
what we fear is augmented with a reminder of the trauma
stimulus generlaization and fears
a fear of heights results in a fear of flying even if they never have
reinforcement and fears
continually fearing something reinforces phobic behaviors

avoiding or escaping feared situation reduces anxiety, thus reinforcing phobic behavior
false beliefs, often of persecution of granduer
obervationval learning and fears
we pass down what we fear to our offspring
schiz and attention
external stilumi distracts them
natural selection and fears
we humans seem biologically prepared for certain fears, and develop others
genes and fear
background contributes a little back, makes us more susceptible to certain diseases
schiz and halucinations
experiencing things that are not present (voices, smells)
the brain and fear

autonomic nervous system
anterior cingulate cortex
is it always on high alert?
fear reducing nuerotransmitter
overactive amygdala=fear
part of brain that checks for errors
learning and fears
we calm our fears by doing things that make us feel better, reinforcing the phobic behavior

little albert
flat affect
zombielike state of apparaent empathy
major depressive disorder
non-substance induced feeling that last ~ 2 weeks of feeling worthless and diminshed interest in activities
less sever depression that major depressive disorder, but last 2 + years

effects of mania
mood disorders makred by a hyperactive, wildy optimistic state

reckless investements, unsafe sex
positive vs negative symptoms of schiz
+: hallucinations, delusions, innapropriate behaviors

-: lack of expression, muteness, rigidness
disorder where person alternates between hopelessness and lethardgy of depression and mania
depression and genes

linkage analysis
assocation studies
depression can run in the family

study depressed and noraml family members to see any DNA differences

correlations between DNA and a population trait
schiz and dopamine
high levels of dopamine cause high brain activities that may lead to delusions and hallucinations
depression and norepinephrine

too much/too little
arousal transmitter. a lack of it can cause depression

too much can cause mania
glutamate and schiz
impaired glutamate activity affects the brains ability to communicate
schiz and cerebral tissue
shrinking of cortex + filling with fluid
schiz and genetics
disease can be passed on, abnormalities at birth raises risk
schiz and viruses
certain viruses raise the risk.

flu, densley populated areas, seasons
schiz and brain acitivity
abnormal brain activity in frontal lobes, thalamus, and amygdala
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions + hallucinations
disorganized schizophrenia
impaired language
flat affect
catatonic schizophrenia
excessive purposeless movement
extreme negativism
parrotlike repeating of anothers speech
undifferentinated schizophrenia
many varied symptoms
residual schizophrenia
withdrawl, after hallucinations and delusions have dissapeared