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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
conciousness
awareness of ourselves and the environment
biological rythym is controlled by our...
biological clock
SAD
seasonal affective disorder
different biological rythyms
menstraul cycle
90 minute cycle
24 hour cycle- circadian rythym
superchiasmatic nucleus
light triggers a decrease of melatonin (morning) and increase (night) from pineal gland
90 minute sleep cycle
5 stages/90 minutes
brain activity during awakeness/alterness
beta waves- when engaged in mental activity

alpha waves- during awakeness but no mental activity
stage 1 sleep
very light sleep

easily to be awaken

hypnogogic sensations (floating off bed, falling)
stage 2 sleep

spend...
slightly alert

theta waves

sleep spindles- bursts of rapid, rythmic brain wave activity

most time
stage 3 sleep
brain activity slows down

delta waves start
stage 4 sleep
increase of delta waves

deepest level of sleep

sleepwalking
do we process information when asleep
yes. ex: not falling out of bed

EEG recordings confirm that the brains auditory cortex responds to certain stimuli during slee
stage 5 sleep
REM sleep

beta waves reapper

dreaming occurs during this stage

arousal

paradoxical sleep: body is internally aroused and externally calm
adenosine
chemical produced the longer we stay awake. caffeine blocks this activity
light and sleep
light therapy

artificial light can delay sleep
sleep theories
sleep protects- stay away from predators

sleep recuperates- restore, repair brain tissue

sleep helps- helps with memory

sleep and growth- pituitary gland releases growth hormones
effects of sleep deprivation

effects or chronic deprivation
daylight savings affects

slow reactions, increased mental performance

affected immune system

obesity, mental impairment
insomnia
persistent problems in staying or falling asleep
somnambulism
sleep walking
nightmares
frightening dreams that wakes a sleeper from REM
night terrors
sudden arousal of sleep and intense fear (sweating, heart rate increase)
narcolepsy

cause
overpowering urge to fall asleep

absense of hypothalamic neural center that produces hypocretin, an alerting transmitter
sleep apnea
failure to breath when asleep
manifest content

developer
story line of our dreams

sigmund freud
__ of dreams are of neg content
80%
why we dream
satisfy wishes
failure dreams
sexual dreams (less than 10%)
information processing
psychologial function
activiation synthesis theory
brain engages in a lot of neural activity that is random. dreams make sense of this theory
cognitive development and dreams
dreams help brain maturation and cognitive development
REM rebound
we show increased REM sleep when we are sleep deprived
concious processing allows us to.... and is relativiley....
perform voluntary acts, solve novel problems, communicate with others

relativley slow
what stages shorten when REM stage extend
3 and 4
manifest content

latent content
story line of our dreams

unconscious drives and wishes
learning

is maturation learning
relativley permanent change in the immediate or potential behaviors that results from experience

no
classical conditioning

creator
type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli.

ivan pavlov
aquisition

when is best, good, poor, very poor timing?
aquiring the relationship between the CS and US

CS w pause then US
CS right before US
CS during US
US before CS
extinction
diminishing of a conditioned response when US does not follow CS
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause of a extinguished conditoned response
belongingness, preparedness
certain things are learned faster than others (survival, gut skills)
# of pairings
number of time CS + US is experienced
intensity of US
extreme vs mild illness
generalization
same CR to similar types of CS
higher order conditioning
treat a CS as a US if it is well learned
classical conditioning and bilogical functions
organisms learn associations for survival

used to adapt to the environment
applications of classical conditioning
little albert

drug, alcohol addicts
john garcia

lohn b watson
garcia- not all ideas all learned equally

watson- little albert experiment
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together
observational learning
learning by watching others experiences and examples
behaviorism

developer
objective science that studies behavior without referring to mental processes

watson
organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US
cognitive perspective
operant conditioning
learning that is strengthened by a reinforcer or diminished by a punisher
respondent behavior

operant behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
developer of operant conditioning
BF skinner
law of effect

who
behaviors followed a satisfying state of affairs is most likley to recur than behavior that is followed by an unsatisfying state of affairs

thorndike
shaping

example
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of desired behavior

rat stepping on bar for food
discrimitive stimulus
if a bird is reinforced for pecking at a picture of a human face, but not other images
operant chamber

aka
skinner box

rat steps on bar for food
delay and rewards
short delay between action and rewards are best
reinforcer

positive vs negative reinforcment
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

+: strengthen behavior by presenting some sort of reward

-: reducing or removing a undesirable stimulus
primary vs conditioned (secondary) reinforcer
primary- serve a biological need

secondary- gains power through association with primary reinforcer
fixed ratio vs variable ratio schedules
rewards given every x times something is performed, or a reward given on average every x times
fixed interval vs variable interval schedules
rewards given every x minutes or on average every x minutes
punishment (+,-)

who found problems with punishment
event that decreases behavior

introduce something negative, or take out something positive

robert larzelere
problems of punishment

best way of punishment
something behavior is only suppressed

increase aggresiveness

develop fear of person administering punishment

punishment combined with reinforcement
premack principle
use things that people like to reinforce things that people dont like as much
what we learn from operant conditioning
relationship between response and consequence

explains superstitious behavior
vicarious vs observational learning

developer
bandura

vicarious: observe someone doing something and witness its outcome and deduce an action

observational: reproduce action. use mirror neurons
confound
filling a certain group with more or less hopeful cases than the average
cognitive map
mental representation of the layout of ones environment
latent learning
learning that occurs only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake vs a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
keller breland and marian breland
trained circus animals to do certain things, who later resorted to natural biological behaviors
skinner criticisms
dehumanized people, seeking to control peoples actions
cognitive processes and operant conditioning
become critical of owns actions
observational learning
learning by observing others
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions of when observing another doing so.
negatives of observational learning
negative models produce negative duplications
prosocial behavior
positive constructive helpful beahvior
modeling
process of observing and imitating a certain behavior
memory
persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrevial over time
encoding memory
getting information into the brain
flashbulb memories
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
storage / storing memory
retention of encoded information over time
retrieval of memory
process of getting out information out of memory storage
penny example
what we attend to is what we remember
retrieval cue
a word that recalls certain words of the same category
unitized sets of features
memory of up of unitized sets of features
chunking
grouping information
sensory memory
immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

decide whats important for later

high capacity

~1 sec
short term memory
holds a few items briefly

~ 20 sec

low capacity
long term memory
permanent storage of information

unlimited capacity

permanent memory
working memory
sorting out incoming audio and visual spatial information for long term memory
context cue dependent process
study environment example