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216 Cards in this Set

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Most dramatic aspect of sleep.
Story-like sequence of visual images that commonly evoke strong emotions.
Frist person to study dreams formally.
Collegue of Edmund Clark Sanford.
Article-study= recorded dreams, woke up and wrote them down in the middle of the night. (55 nights)
Mary Whiton Calkins
Occur during NREM sleep stages 3 and 4.
sit up, fear, scream, rapid pulse and breathing, speak incoherently.
Don't usually remember the next morning.
Night Terrors
Devised by Stephen LeBerge.
Sleeping individuals learn how to be aware while dreaming and learn how to direct their dreams.
Enhanced sense of well being.
Helps people with recurrent nightmares to alter aspects of their dreams to make them less frightening
Lucid Dreaming
people that are deprived of sleep, sleep as long as they want and show an increase of REM sleep. Indicates that dream sleep, serves certain functions.
REM Rebound Effect
Gives credit to Calkins for anticipating modern approaches to dream research and pioneering intensive study of dreams over nights.
J. Allan Hobson
Lack of congruity between dreams and the waking states of consciousness.
State-dependent memory
Analyzed content of dreams.
Supported the idea that people tend to dream about mundane personal matters, usually involving familiar people and places.
Calvin Hall
Collegues with Mary Whiton Calkins.
Study with Calkins- recorded dreams, woke up during the night and worte the dreams down(46 nights)
Edmund Clark Sanford
About how many dreams a night?
In what half of sleep do more dreams occur?
4 dreams a night

2nd half of the night
Freud believed that dreams contained what to represent the true meaning.
Dreams containg frightening content,
Occur when we feel emotionally distressed.
Frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep.
Content of dreams can be affected by _______________.
Even before calkins this was represented in Herman Melvilles novel Moby Dick when the effect of the captains dreams on the sailors were described.
Ex. water sprayed on sleepers- dream content contained water.
Stimuli do not always effect the content of the dream.
Immediate Environmental Stimuli
He provided the first formal view of dreaming as wish fullfillment.
Claimed that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious and serve as safe outlets for unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses that we can't act on while awake.
Symbols in dreams that represent hidden meanings but also said that "sometimes a cigar is just a cigar."
Sigmund Freud
Content of the dream recalled by the dreamer.
This content hides the other type of content.
Manifest Content
Content of the that is its hidden and underlying meaning.
Latent Content
She is a leading dream researcher.
Conducted formal studies of the positive role of dreaming in solving practical and emotional problems.
Claims that dreaming provides a more creative approach to problem solving because its freer and less constrained by the logical thinking of waking life.
Studied people who were going through divorce.
Study showed a positive correlation between dreaming and emotional adjustment.
Rosalind Cartwright
Which type of sleep is more beneficial to memory?
The more REM sleep that we have a night, the better our memory for material that we learned the day before will be.
Created by J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley.
Holds that dreams are the by-products of the cortex's attempt to make sense of activity generated by the brainstem during REM sleep. The cortex interprets brain activation and synthesizes it into a dream.
This theory accepts that the cortex's interpretation of random brainstem activity presumably reveals something about the personality and experiences of the dreamer.
Assumes dreams are generated by random brainstem activity not by unconscious wishes or emotional conflicts.
Activation-synthesis theory
No dream theory has been found to be superior at explaining the functions of dreams.
What is the major difficulty in dream research?
The same dream can be explained equally well by different theories.
Calkins findings include what 8 things?
We dream every night.
We have about 4 dreams a
As the night progresses, we
are more likely to be
Most dreams are mundane and
refer to recent life
Dreams can incorporate
external stimuli.
What Calkins called "real
thinking" occurs during
We can reason while dreaming
and even, to an extent,
control our dreams.
Dreams can disguise their
true meaning.
Positive correlation between
dreamig and what?
No evidence that dreaming
caused what?
Emotional Adjustment

Better Emotional Adjustment
A motivated state, varying
in its intensity and
unpleasantness, marked by
physiological arousal,
expressive behavior, and
cognitive experience.
Comes from the Latin word
meaning "to set in motion".
Evolved to motivate behavior
that helps us adapt to
different situations.
Emotional expression and
Emotional experience depend
on physiological arousal
which reflects activity in
the ________ nervous system
This nervous system is
called "_______" because
it functions independently,
without the need for
concious, voluntary
regulation by the brain.
Autonomic nervous system

What are the two branches
of the autonomic nervous
The interplay of these two
systems contributes to the
ebb and flow of emotions.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous
Sympathetic Nervous System
relies on the
neurotransmitter __________
to regulate its target
Parasympathetic nervous
system relies on the
neurotransmitter _________
to regulate it target organs

Activation of the Sympathetic
nervous system can stimulate
the ___________ response.
This response evoled because
it enabled our ancestors to
meet sudden physical threats
by either confronting them
or running away from them.
Triggered by both physical
threats and psychological
Fight-or-flight response
Measurement of changes in
autonomic nerouvs system
activity is the basis for
what test?
Typically measures breathing
patterns, heart rate, blood
pressure, and electrodermal
activity(amount of sweating)
Used to detect lying, no
pattern of physiological
responses by itself
indicates lying but by
detecting physiological
arousal produced by
activation of the
sympathetic nervous system.
Polygraph Test
Modern lie detection began in
the 1890s with the work of
Italian criminologist who
questioned suspect while
recording their heart rate
and blood pressure.
Assumed that if they showed
marked fluctuations in heart
rate and blood pressure
while responding to
questions, they were lying.
Cesare Lombroso
Current polygraph test is
the direct descendant of
research conducted in the
1920s by _________________,
the creator of the comic
book character Wonder Woman
William Martson
Given in the typical
polygraph test
Designed to promote lying
about minor transgressions
common to almost everyone
Control Questions
Compared with suspects
physiological response to
control questions
Concerned with facts about
the crime
Relevant Questions
Greater physiological arousal
in response to relevant
Greater physiological arousal
in response to control

Accuracy of the polygraph
depends on ____________?
Suspects physiological reactivity
People with low or high
reactivity show a smaller
difference between
responses to control
questions and relevant
Techniques used to trick the
lie detector (there is 2)
Antianxiety drugs

Properly timed pain (bite
tounge or tack in shoe).
This increases the level of
physiological arousal in
response to control
questions which reduces the
difference between
physiological response to
control and relevant
Test that is a possible
improvement over the
polygraph test.
Developed by Davis Lykken
Board game Clue
Assesses knowledge about a
transgression rather than
the alleged anxiety about it
Guilty Knowledge Test
Guilty Knowledge Test assumes
that a guilty person will
show more physiological
arousal in rsponse to
relevant words or irrelevant
Greater physiological
reactivity to relevant words
in a series of statements
leads a person to be
considered ______________?

The Guilty Knowledge Test has
an abilty to avoid ________
False Positives
Guilty Knowledge Test is
biased towards____________.
Control-Question tests are
biased towards____________.
False Negatives

False Positives
The _________ is ultimately
in control of emotional
The _________ regulates the
arousal of the autonomic
nervous system.
The limbic system includes
three main components.
Hypothalamus,Amygdala, and
the hippocampus.
Prompts us to react
emotionally to different
environmental circumstances.
Enables us to respond to
adaptively and to form
memories of those situations
to help us respond
adaptively in the future.
Recognizes unpleasant stimlui
evoking emotionally
negative feelings rather
than emotionally positive
The ______ lobes of the
cerebral cortex may inhibit
emotional responses produced
by the amygdala so they are
not excessive.
The interaction of the ______
and the ________regulate the
intensity of emotional
Amygdala and Frontal Lobes
The left or right hemisphere
is more active when trying
to assess emotional states
from facial expressions.
This hemisphere also plays a
greater role in regulating
facial expressions of
Right Hemisphere
The ______ hemisphere is
more involved in positive
The ______ hemisphere is more
involved in negative

Him and his colleagues
conducted studies to learn
about the role of each
hemisphere in emotional
Measured the relative degree
of activity in each
hemisphere during emotional
Richard Davidson
Involves selective anesthesia
of one cerebral hemisphere
to determine hemisphere
functions(mainly the site of
the speech center).
Provided evidence of the
laterization of emotionality
Anesthetic sodium
amobarbital is injected into
the left or right cartoid
artery of patients who are
about to undergo brain
The Wada Test
Cartoid arteries supply _____
to the brain.
When injected during the Wada
test, the hemisphere is
During the Wada Test,Positive
emotionality are more
frequent after _______-
hemisphere anesthesia.
Negative Emotionality is more
frequent after ______-
hemisphere anesthesia.
Right- hemisphere

Left- hemisphere
Emtional responses depend on
chemistry. _________ and
__________________ convey
emotion-related impulses
from one neuron to another
or between neurons and body
Hormones and Neurotransmitters
Stressful situations cause
the secreation of the
neurotransmitters __________
and _______________.
Epinephrine and Norephinephrine
Stress hormones stimulate an
increase in low-density
lipoproteins and provide one
of the mechanisms by which
emotional responses to
stressful situations
contribute to the
development of ____________
A class of neurotransmitters
Contribute to emotional
experiences by providing
pain relief and evoking
feelings of euphoria.
A drug that blocks the
effect of endorphins
Neither group in an
experiment know which
subjects are receiving
which part of the experiment
Prevented participant bias or
experimenter bias from
affecting the results
Double-Blind Procedure
_________ ________ and ______
__________ are behaviors
that express emotion.
Vocal Qualities and Facial
The vocal features of speech
other than the words
themselves are called
Factors of this include
rate, pitsh, and loudness.
These factors are primarily
associated with activity in
the right cerebral
hemisphere when we speak and
The ______ hemisphere
provides the words and the
_______ hemisphere plays
accompaniment, emotional
Left Hemisphere

Right Hemisphere
He stated that our faces give
away our emotions
Philip D. Chesterfield
Sincere smile that includes
muscular activity around
the eyes, causes the skin
to wrinkle, and around the
mouth, causing the corners
of the lips to rise,.
Duchenne Smile
He believed that facial
expressions evolved because
they promoted survival by
communicating emotions and
helping individuals
distinguish friend from foe
Charles Darwin
Researchers consider ________
as the subjective well being
and the highest good
Two most important factors
in happiness
State of Health

One's Personality
Happiness is especially
related to ___________
_________, which is being
outgoing but not out of
Stable Extraversion
Felt that people always want
to be happier than others
but it is hard because we
believe that others are
happier than they actually
Charles Montesquieu
This theory considers
happiness to be the result
of estimating that one's
life circumstances are more
favorable than those of
One of the most influential
theories of happiness
Includes Montesquieu
assumptions about happiness
Social-Comparison Theory
Happiness Researcher
Found that wealthier
Americans are no happier
than nonwealthy Americans
given that the nonwealthy
people have the basic
necessities of life
Edward Diener
This theory holds that
happiness depends not on
comparing yourself to others
but comparing yourself to
Present circumstances
compared to past
Adaption-level theory
This theory of emotion holds
that our facial expressions
affect our emotional
Eotional Experience is caused
by the perception of
physiological changes.
Inspired by the James-Lange
Limited to the effects of
facial expressions.
Put forth in 1907 by Isreal
Waynbaum believed that
particular facial
expressions alter the flow of blood to particular
regions of the brain which
evokes particular emotional
Facial-feedback theory
Theory that deals with
adopting a facial expression
characteristic of a
particular emotion, which
can induce that emotion
Primarily concerned with the
effects of autonomic nervous
system activity on emotion
James-Lange Theory
Descendant of the facial-
feedback theory
Assumes that changes in
facial expressions affects
the volume of air flow
through the nose, which
alters brain temperature and
influences emotional states.
Assumes that increased air
flow cools the brain and
induces positive moods,
while decreased air flow
warms the brain and induces
negative moods.
Vascular Theory
He leads most contemporary
facial-feedback theorists
Assumes that evolution has
endowed us with facial
expressions that provide
different patterns of
sensory feedback of muscle
tension levels to the brain,
which evokes different
Paul Ekman
Support for the vascular
theory has come from
studies that have found
emotional experiences follow
_________ _________ rather
than precede them, and that
sensory neurons convey
information from facial
muscles directly to the
hypothalamus, which helps
with emotional arousal.
Facial Expressions
Involved in book- The Man Who
Mistook His Wife for A Hat
Book included a case study in
which a man(Dr.P)tried to
take off his wife's head
and put it on like a hat.
He tries to express the
extraordinary effects of
brain damage on human
behavior by using case
Oliver Sacks
The individual can see
objects and identify their
features but cannot
recognize them
Visual Agnosia
This is a form of Visual
Can identify details of faces
but cannot recognize them as
a whole
Caused by damage to the
association cortex running
along the underside of the
occipital and temporal lobes
of the brain
The process that detects
stimuli from the environment
Visual agnosia and
prosopagnosia illustrate the
difference between this and
The process that organizes
sensations into meaningful
Starting point for both
sensation and perception
A form of energy ( such as
light or sound waves) that
can affect sensory organs
(such as the eyes or the
Specialized cells that the
process of sensation depends
Detect stimuli and convert
their energy into neural
Serve our visual, auditory,
smell, tatse, skin, and body
Sensory Receptors
The process of sensory
receptors detecting stimuli
and converting it their
energy into neural impulses
Sensory Transduction
The study of the relationship
between the physical
characteristics of stimuli
and the corresponding
psychological responses to
Percieve things like
slipperiness of floor tiles,
gender differences in pain
sensitivity, etc.
They developed psychophysics
1)published Elements of
studied the relationship
between physical
stimulation and mental
2)Used fine bristles to
measure touch sensitivity
by bending them against the
1)Gustav Fechner

2)Ernest Weber
The minimum amount of
stimulation that a person
can detect is called the
__________, or limen
Absolute Threshold
Absolute threshold for a
particular sensory
experience varies,
psychologists operationally
define the absolute
threshold as the minimum
level of stimulation that
can be detected ___ percent
of the time when a stimulus
is presented
Investigates whether
participants can
unconciously perceive
stimuli that do not exceed
the absolute threshold
Subliminal Perception
Subliminal Stimulation is
stimulation that does not
exceed the absolute
Subliminal Stimulation that
became part of the 2000 U.S.
Presidential election
Democrats complained that
Republicans had superimposed
the subliminal message _____
over a TV advertisement
attacking Al Gore's Medicare
The superimposing of a
soundtrack backwards over a
forward one.
Expressed in response to John
Travolta's movie Phenomenon
when 2 radio jockeys claimed
that the movie was filled
with subliminal messages
promoting Travolta's belief
in the religion of
Recieved attention on the
show Extra by claiming that
the theme song of the movie
promoted the name of the
founder of Scientology and
his book, Dianetics
Dont confuse subliminal
stimulation with subliminal
No evidence that people will
obey what they hear through
subliminal messages
Minimum amount of change in a
stimulation that can be
detected is called the
___________ ______________
The threshold varies so it
is defined as the minimum
change in stimulation that
can be detected 50 percent
of the time by a given
Difference Threshold
What Weber and Fechner
refered to the difference
threshold as
Just Noticeable Difference
Law that express that the
amount of change in
intensity of stimulation
needed to produce a jnd is a
constant fraction of the
original stimulus
Holds better for stimuli of
moderate intensity than for
stimuli of extremely low or
high intensity
Weber's law
Tendency of sensory receptors
to respond less and less to
an unchanging stimulus
Lets us detect potentially
important changes in our
environment while ignoring
unchanging aspects of it
Sensory Adaptation
The possibility of perception
independent of sensory
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
The field that studies ESP
and related phenomena
(para means beside)
Parapsychological abilities
are typically called
Expressed in a lawsuit in
which a women sued a
hospital claiming that a CT
scan made her lose her ESP
The alleged ability to
percieve the thoughts of
Represent when the Greatful
Dead Rock group had their
audience try to send mental
images to a sleeper in a
dream lab
Mental Telepathy
Alleged ability to percieve
objects or events without
any sensory contact
Related to mental telepathy
Amazing Kreskin
Alleged ability to perceive
events in the future
Parapsychologists that
believe this are left with
the scientific problem of
explaining how minds that
exist in the present can
perceive events that take
place in the future
An uncanny feeling that you
have experienced a present
situation in the past and
that you can anticipate what
will happen in the next few
Deja vu
Alleged ability to control
objetcs with the mind alone
Closely allied with ESP
He is given credit for making
paraphyschology a legitimate
area of scientific research
Began a program of
experimentation on
paranormal phenomena on the
J.B. Rhine
She was a leading
Notes that experimenter bias
might account for the poor
perofrmance of some
participants in ESP or PK
Insists experimenters who are
cynical about ESP or PK
might inhibit talented
people from performing well
in research studies
Gertrude Schmeidler
What is the main weakness of
research studies on
paranormal abilities?
A final criticism of
parapsychology is that there
is ___ __________ __________
___ _____________ _________.
The difficulty in replicating

No satisfactory explanation
of paranormal phenomena
Research studies conducted
during periods of low
__________ activity have
been associated with the
most positive ESP research
Parapsychologists remind
psychologists to be _______
rather than cynical, because
many phenomena that are now
scientifically acceptable
were once considered
impossible and unworthy of
The sense of _________, or
audition, helps us function
by informing us about the
objects at a distance from
Informs us about objects we
cannot see because they are
behind us, hidden by
darkness, or blocked by
another object
_______ is produced by
vibrations carried by air,
water, or other mediums.
It requires a medium in which
to travel so it cannot
travel in a vaccum
Sound _________ create a
successive bunching and
spreading of molecules in
the sound medium
A series of these bunching-
spreading cycles forms a
sound wave
The height of a sound wave is
its ______________.
The number of sound-wave
cycles that pass a given
point in a second is its
Sound wave frequency is
measured in __________.
Named for the 19th century
German physicist Heinrich
Sound waves are sensed and
perceived by the ___________
__________, which begins at
the ear.
auditory system
The ear is divded into 3
Outer Ear, Middle Ear, Inner
The oddly shped flap of skin
cartilage that we commonly
call the ear
Included in the outer ear
Plays a small role in human
Some animals have moveable
ones that allow them to
detect and locate faint
Better known as the eardrum
Sound waves are gathered by
the pinna and then pass
through the EXTERNAL
the __________ ____________
Sound waves make the eardrum
Typanic membrane
The eardrum seperates the
outer ear from the _______
Vibrations of the eardrum are
conveyed to the bones, or
________, of the middle ear
These are 3 tiny bones
connected to one another by
They are named with Latin
names that reflect their
shapes: malleus(hammer),
incus(anvil), and the stapes
Tubes that connect the middle
ear to the back of the
Permit air to enter the
middle ear to equalize
pressure on both sides of
the eardrum
Eustachian tubes
Vibrations of the stapes are
conveyed to the _____ ______
of the inner ear.
A membrane in the wall of a
spiral structure called the
cochlea(from the Greek word
oval window
A spiral structure that
contains the oval window
Comes from the Greek word
meaning snail
Vibrations of the oval
window send waves through a
fluid-filled chamber that
runs the lenth of this
Also runs the length of the
Set in motion by the waves
that the vibrations of the
oval window send through the
fluid-filled chamber along
the cochlea
The movement of this membrane
causes the bending of hair
cells that protrude from it
Basilar Membrane
The bending of hair cells
triggers impulses that
travel along the axons of
the nuerons that form the
__________ ___________.
Auditory Nerve
After auditory impulses reach
the thalamus and some
processing is done they are
relayed to the ________
_________ of the temporal
lobes of the brain,the
ultimate site of sound
Auditory Cortex
The basilar membrane is known
as the proximal or distal
stimulus and the source is
known as the proximal or
distal stimulus

Your ability to percieve
_______ depends on pitch
perception, loudness
perception, timbre
perception, and sound
ability to percieve sounds
The _______ of a sound is the
main determinant of its
perceived pitch
People with _________ _______
can identify and produce
tones pf a specific pitch
absolute pitch
Theory which assumes that
particular points on the
basilar membrane vibrate
maximumly in response to
sound waves of particular
Explains frequencies around
1000 Hz
Put forth by Herman von
Helmholtz in 1863
Best explains the perception
of high pitch sounds
place theory
He won a Nobel Prize in 1961
for his research on the
place theory
Took cochleas from the ears
of guinea pigs and human
cadavers, stimulated the
oval window and noted the
response of the basilar
membrane through a hole cut
in the cochlea
Found that as the frequency
of a stimulus increased
the point of maximum
vibration produced by the
traveling wave on the
basilar membrane moved
closer to the oval window
Georg von Bekesy
Assumes that the basilar
membrane vibrates as a whole
in direct proportion to the
frequency of the sound waves
striking the eardrum
Nuerons of the auditory
system fire at the same
frequency as the vibrations
of the basilar membrane
This theory explains the
perception of sounds below
1000 Hz
Put forth by Ernest
Rutherford in 1886
Best explains the perception
of low-pitched sounds
Frequency Theory
Theory created by Ernest
Weber that explains pitch
perception between 1000 Hz
and 5000 Ht
Assumes that sound waves in
this range induce certain
groups of auditory neurons
to fire in volleys
Best explains the perception
of medium-pitched souonds
Volley Theory
Sounds vary in intensity, or
Depends mainly on the
amplitude of its sound waves
Loudness perception depends
on both the number and the
firing thresholds of hair
cells on the basilar
membrane that are stimulated
Firing of hair cells with
higher thresholds increase
the perceived loudness of
the sound
The unit of sound intensity is the _______
One tenth of a Bel, a unit
named for Alexander Graham
Faintest detectable sound has
an absolute threshold of 0
dB. For each change of 10
decibels the perceived loudness doubles
Type of deafness where there
is a mechanical problem in
the outer of middle ear that
interferes with hearing
Conduction Deafness
A problem of the inner ear.
The basilar membrane, the
auditory nerve, or the
auditory cortex is damaged
People typically lose their
ability to perceive sounds
of ceratin frequencies
Nerve Deafness
Provide electronic
stimulation of the neurons
leaving the basilar
membrane,promise to restore
at least rudimentary hearing
in people with nerve
Cochlear Implants
The quality of sound, which
reflects a particular
mixture of sound waves
Lets us identify the source
of a sound
Also allows us to evalute the
relative quality of sounds
Involves discerning where
sounds are comming from
The brain can determine the
location of sound because
the auditory cortex has
that respond to these
difference in intensity and
arrival time
Sound Localization
Sense of ______, or olfaction
warns us of danger
Can alter our mood
Attempts to use different
fregrances to enhance
cognitive abilities or
psychological well-being
Goes with the idea that odors
can affect our mood
Alerting aroma- rosemary
Relaxing aroma-lavender
Ability to smell odors- how
do we smell?
Molecules carried in inhaled
air stimulate smell receptor
cells on the olfactory
epithelium high up in the
nassal passage.
These molecules alter the
resting potential and
firing frequency of receptor
cells, stimulating some and
inhibiting others
Patterns in firing receptor
cells evoke certain odors
Nueral impulses from the
receptor cells travel along
the short ________ nerves to
the fromtal lobes of the
_____ is the only sense that
is not first processed in
the thalamus before being
processed in other olfactory
centers in the brain
The limbic system is
important in the experience
of emotion recieves many
_______ connections from the
olfactory nerves
All other odors are a mixture
of these basic odors
Ethereal(dry-cleaning fluid),
Musky(musk cologne), Floral
(roses), Pepperminty
(peppermint candy), Pungent
(vinegar), Putrid(rotten
7 Recognized odors
Theory that beleives that
smell receptors responsive
to particular odors are
sensitive to molecules of
specific sizes, shapes, or
electrical charges
Stereochemical Theory of
She is a leading olfactory
Found that regaurdless of the
exact machanisms by which
this occurs, olfaction
depends on stimulation of
different receptors,
composed of proteins, on the
olfactory epithelium by
specific airborne chemicals
Linda Bartoshuk
Secretions called _________,
are studied to determine the
effects of them on sexual
behavior of animals
For example, apphrodisin- a
vaginal pheromone released
by female hamsters and
inhaled by male hamsters
stimulates copulation
Gustation,or ________,
protects us from harm by
preventing us from ingesting
poisons and enhances our
enjoyment of life by letting
us savor food and beverages.
What taste and taste
sensitivity depend on
Line the grooves between
bumps called papillae on
the surface of the tounge
Conatin receptor cells that
send neural impulses when
stimulated by molecules
dissolved in saliva
Die and are replaced
taste buds
Arab scientist that proposed
that there were 4 basic
tastes: sweet, sour, salty,
and bitter
Tested Avicenna's ideas by
testing the sensitivity of
the papillae by applying a
variety of chemicals to
different papillae
Hijalmar Ohrwall
____ of tongue = sweet/salty
_____ of tongue = sour/salty
_____ of tongue = bitter
Gustation depends on the ____
and ______ of molecules that
stimulate the taste
shape and size
The pleasureable taste
elicited by monosodium
Taste receptors that are
sensitive to the presence of
particular nutrients like
fatsare also sensitive to
Taste depends on sensations
from the mouth, ________
relies on both taste and
smell, as well as on
texture, temperature, and
even pain
Condition in which a person
loses their sense of smell
because of disease or brain
_____ Senses are senses such
as touch, temperature, and
We use these to identify
objects, communicate
feelings, and protect us
from injury
Skin sensations are
determined by the
stimulation of receptors
Skin Senses
Nueral impulses from the
skin receptors reach the
thalamus, which relays them
to the _____________ cortex
of the brain
The more sensitive the area
of skin is the larger its
representation on this
cortex is
Your sense of _______, allows
you to identify objects
rapidly and accurately
This type of sensitivity
depends on the concentration
of receptors
Invented the Braille system
for reading and writing,
which uses patterns of
raised dots to represent
Louis Braille
The sense of _______, or
nociception, proects us from
injury or death
Induced by an injury or
intense stimulation of
sensory receptors
The main pain receptors (or
nociceptors) are ______
______ _________ in the skin
Two kinds of nueronal fibers
trasmit pain impulses: A-
delta fibers and C fibers
free nerve endings

A-delta= carry sharp or
pricking pain
C fibers= carry dull or
burning pain
Substance implicated in pain
A chemical that accumulates
at the site of an injury or
Asprin relieves pain by
inhibiting the release of
Important pain-processing
center and pathways to the
limbic system which may
affect amotional responses
to pain
periaqueductal gray
Pain receptor nuerons
transmit pain impulses by
releasing the
neurotransmitter ________ __
from their axons
Sustance P
Most influential theory of
Formulated by psychologist
Ronald Melzack and biologist
Patrick Wall
Assumes that pain impulses
from the limbs or body pass
through a part of the
spinal cord that provides a
"gate" for pain impulses,
perhaps invloving substance
P nuerons
gate-control theory
Cloding of the pain gate is
stimulated by the secretion
of __________which are the
brains natural opiates
May inhibit the secretion of
substance P
Reinterpretation of pain can
reduce or increase its
Shown by the Anzio effect
Pain may have been reduced
by the nueral impulses sent
from the brain to the spinal
cord, closing the pain gate
Most popular approach to pain
relief is on drugs such as
___________, which affects
endorphin receptors in the
in the brain
_________, or sugar pills
that are substituted for
pain relieving drugs, can
relieve pain
Type of pain relief that
relies on inserting fine
needles into the various
sites on the body
A drug that blocks the
effects of opiates and
inhibits the analgesic
effects of acupuncture
Blocks impulses at the pain
gate in the spinal cord
Technique for pain relief
relies on ______________
_______________ ______
____________( )
Involves electrical
stimulation of sites on the
Transcutaneous Electrical
Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
One of the only types of
pain relief that does not
work by stimulating the
release of endorphins
Sends neural impulses that
block pain impulses at the
spinal cord or by reducing
attention to pain sensations
_______ senses tell you the
position of your limbs and
and help you maintain
The 2 body senses are
Kinesthetic Sense and the
Vesztibular Sense
The kinesthetic sense
informs you of the position
of your joints, the tension
in your muscles, and the
movement of your arms and
Kinesthetic sense
Vestibular sense depend on
organs in the inner ear
Informs you of your head's
position in space, helping
you maintain your balance
and orientation
Conatin 2 types of organs
otolith organs-detect
acceleration through space
semicircular organs- 3 fluid
-filled tubes oriented in
different planes
Vestibular Organs

otolith and semicircular
bending of hair cells
triggers nueral impulses
that are relayed to the
cerebellum, which helps you
maintain your _____________
Compensates for rotary head
movements by moving the eyes
a proportionate amount in
the opposite direction
Aids the semicircular canal
in allowing you to keep your
eyes _______ ____ __ _______
Fixed on a target
Induced by conflict between
visual and vestibular
Reduced by a sense of control
Motion Sickness
Devised the earliest drug
treatments for motion
Found a drug that inhibited
the motion sickness
Wilder Penfield
Lets us sense objects by the
light reflected from them
into our eyes
Light is the common name for
the ________ ___________, a
narrow band of energy within
the electromagnetic spectrum
Visible Spectrum
Wavelength of light
corresponds to its ____, the
perceptual quality that we
call color
The distance between two
wave peaks
Measured in nanometers
(billionths of a meter)
Light composed of short
wavelengths: light appears
what color
Light composed of long
wavelengths: light appears
what color

Relatively short wavelengths
Affects human beings mainly
by causing sunburn
ultraviolet light
Relatively long wavelengths
Conveys heat
Infrared light
In the visible spectrum, the
height, or ___________, of
light waves determines the
perceived intesity, or
___________, of a light

Purity of a light's
wavelength determines its
__________, or vividness
Narrower the range of
wavelengths, the more
saturated the light.
Vision depends on the
interaction of the eyes and
the brain
Eyes sense light reflected
from objects and convey this
information to the brain,
where visual __________
takes place
Tough membrane of the eye
Protects the eye from injury
At the front of the sclera
The round, transparent ______
Focuses light into the eye
Determines eye color
Donut-shaped band of muscles
behind the cornea
Controls the amount of light
that enters the eye by
regulating the size of the
Dialates the eye to let in
more light and constricting
it to let in less.
Opening at the center of the
Regulates the amount of light the enters the idea
After passing through the
pupil light is focused by
the _____ onto the retina,
the light sensitive inner
membrane of the eye.
Tiny muscles connected to the
lens control ______________,
The process by which the
lens increases its curvature
to focus light from close
objects or decreases its
curvature to focus light for
more distant objects
Image on the retina is cast
________ _________
Leonardo da Vinci rejected
this possibility
Nueral pathways in the brain
"flip" the image to make it
appear right side up
upside down
Most common conditions that
make people unable to focus
clear images on the retina
Myopia and Hyperopia
lens focuses images of
near objects on the
retina, but focuses
images of far objects
at a point in front of
the retina
Hyperopia:farsightedness, the
lens focuses images
of far objects on
the retina, but
focuses images of
near objects at a
point that would
fall behind the
Cells in the retina that
respond when stimulated by
2 types of these-rods and
Each eye has about 120
million rods and 6 million
Rods and Cones stimulate
_________ cells which in
turn stimulate ganglion
Formed by the axons of the
ganglion cells
Convey visual information to
the brain
Optic Nerves
Rods are important to night
vision and peripheral vision
Periphery of the retina
Cones are very important in
color vision and detailed
Prevalent in the center
Depend on different pathways
in the brain
Small area in the center of
the retina
Conatins only cones
Provides most acute vision
Each cone transmits nueral
impulses to one bipolar cell
Differ in visual acuity
because they vary in the
number of foveal cones
Blood vessels on the eye
Alcohol and marijuana makes
eyes red
Area of the retina that feeds
input to a ganglion cell
receptor field
Some ganglion cells increase
their activity when light
strikes inside the relevant
receptor field and reduce
their activity when light
strikes outside it
He demonstrated the existence
of the blind spot, the point
at which the optic nerve
leaves the eye. Blind spots
contain no rods or cones
Edme Mariotte
Optic nerves travel under the
frontal lobes of the brain
and meet at a point called
the ________ __________
At this point axons from the
half of each optic nerve
toward the nose cross to the
opposite side of the brain
The optic chiasm
Place where most axons of the optic nerves go
This transmits information
to the visual cortex of the
occipital lobes
Retinal objects in the ______
visual field is processed in
the left occipetal lobe, and
retinal information about
objects in the _____ visual
field is processed in the
right occipital lobe

Stimulation of electrodes
attached to the visual
cortex produces a pattern
of spots of light called
Can be used to represent the
outlines of objetcs seen by