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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Development
Changes over time
Child Development
the scientific study of change and stability in the child's biological, cognitive, social, and emotional functioning across the span of childhood
Physcial
growing, brain development
Cognitive
How we think, remember
Social/Emotional
interaction, involvement
Periods of Development IN ORDER
Prenatal (conception-birth)
Infancy and toddlerhood (birth-2)
Early Childhood (2-6)
Middle Childhood (6-11)
Adolescence (11-20)
Prenatal
most rapid phase of change
Infancy and toddlerhood
changes in body and brain
physical, cognitive, social/emotional developments
Early childhood
more independent, morality, friendship, imagination
Middle childhood
responsibility, learn to read, understanding grows
Adolescence
puberty, sexual maturity, identity, abstract thought
Main Issues and Themes
Nature vs. Nurture
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Universal vs. individual Differences
Passive vs. Active Child
Nature vs. Nurture
genes vs. environment (interaction)
Locke- tabula rasa: blank slate, behaviorism
Rousseau-noble savage: innate goodness
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Gradual (quantitative change)
vs. stage like development (qualitative change)
Universal vs. Individual Differences
Many vs. One
All children will learn regardless of culture and experience to speak and to interact (or not) but in different, multilayered ways
Passive vs. Active Child
Sponge or active?
Developmental Theories
Psychoanalytic
Behavioral and Social Learning
Cognitive
Biological
Systems
Psychoanalytic (psychosexual)
Freud
Id, Ego, Superego
Psychosexual:
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent (social), Genital
Psychosocial
Erikson
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Oral)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Anal)
Initiative vs. guilt (phallic)
Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency)
Identity vs. identity confusion (genital)
Intimacy vs. isolation (emerging adulthood-after adolescence)
Generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood)
Integrity vs. despair (old age)
Behavioral vs. Social Learning
Pavlov/Watson
Classical Conditioning (CS, US, CR, UR) association
Little Albert (conditioned fear/extinction)
rabbit produces fear
Behavioral vs. Social Learning
Skinner
Operant Conditioning:
positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement
punishment
REINFORCEMENT=increase behavior
Behavioral vs. Social Learning
Bandura
Social Learning Theory
observation, imitation, vicarious reinforcement
includes cognition
MORE LIKLEY TO IMITATE ACTION OBSERVED IF THE MODEL IS REINFORCED OR THERE IS A RELATION TO THE MODEL
Stances of Major Theories
Psychoanalytic perspective
discontinuous development, one course of development, both nature and nurture are important
Stances of Major Theories
Behaviorism and social learning theory*as
continuous development, many possible courses of development, nurture over nature
Stances of Major Theories
Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory*
discontinuous development, one course of development, both nature and nurture are important
Stances of Major Theories
Information Processing
Continuous, one course, both nature and nurture
Stances of Major Theories
Ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology
both continuous and discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture
Stances of Major Theories
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
both continuous and discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture
Stances of Major Theories
Ecological systems theory
not specified, many possible courses, both nature and nurture
Stances of Major Theories
Dynamic systems perspective
both continuous and discontinuous, many possible courses, both nature and nurture
Systems-Ecological
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
CHILDREN ARE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR ENVIRONMENTS
Microsystem
chid and immediate surroundings
Mesosystem
interactions between microsystems
Exosystem
social setting that affect child
Macrosystem
culture, laws, customs, resources
Chronosysteem
temporal dimension (growing older, life events)
Important terms and concepts for Research Methods
Hypothesis, Reliability, Validity (internal and external)
Hypothesis
question you are going to ask
prediction based from a theory
Reliability
repeatability, similar results from various tests
Internal Validity
appropriate measures, predicitability
External Validity
generalizability, can you draw conclusions about the population from the tests
Ethics
Informed consent, limited deception-no harm (approval of IRU, privacy/anonymity, right to terminate participation, debriefing
Types of Research Methods
Descriptive, Correlation, Experimental
Types of Research Methods
Descriptive
observations, self reports, case studies, surveys
LIMITATIONS:
observer bias, response bias, demand characteristics, observer influence, can't infer causation, tedious
Types of Research Methods
Correlatation
r, + or -,
Magnitude-how strong the relationship is (1-highest, 0-lowest)
Direction-sign of r
examples: GPA, SAT scores
Spurious correlations (confounds)-third variable
Correlation not = causation-more aggressive children watch tv
Types of Research Methods
Experimental
Experimenter has more control
Independent (what we are testing) and dependent (outcome) variables
Random sampling/assignments
Comparison of different groups
Holding other variables constant/ Matching
Cross sectional
Longitudinal
Genes and Heredity
Inheritance
Dominant/Rcessive
Combined/Codominant
Intermediate
Sex-linked (carried on either the X or Y)
Chromosomes
store and transmit genetic info
Somatic Cells
Sex Cells
23 pairs of autosomes each (mitosis)

23 single chromosomes each (meiosis)
Genes
Alleeles
Segment of DNA along chromosome

2 or more forms of gene (1 from each parent) heterozygous or homozygous
Genotype
Phenotype
Actual code (Bb)

Appearance (Brown)
Chromosomal Abnormalities
Down Syndrome
Trisomy 21
caused by 3 21st chromosomes
distinct physical features
MR, below avg intelligence (speech, vocab, motor problems)
Chromosomal Abnormalities
MIssing or Extra
XXY males-relativlty normal
XXX females-tall, impaired speech/verbal intelligence, otherwise normal
Chromosomal Abnormalities
Missing or Extra cont'd
Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXY male)
sterile, impaired speech, don't get normal sex characteristics
Turner Syndrome (XO female)
short, webbed neck, sterile, do not develop normally at puberty, impaired speech/vocab intelligence
Prenatal Screening and Genetic Testing
Ultrasonography (ultrasound), Amniocentesis, Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Ultrasound
passes sound waves to produce picture
Amniocentesis
fluid from amniotic cells to determine disease, risk of miscarriage (14th week)
Chorionic villus sampling
miscarriage twice as likely as Amniocentiisis, cells from chorionic layer of the placenta (8th week)
Gene-Environment Interactions
Range of reaction-unique response too environment based on genetic makeup
Canalization-learning to walk, talk
Gene-environment correlations-genes influence the environment
PASSIVE, EVOCATIVE/REACTIVE, ACTIVE
Behavioral Genetics
heritability-proportion of VARIABILITY in a behavior that can be attributed to genetic factors
genetic variance and environmental variance
h2=genetic variance
range=0-1
if all genes, h2=1
if all environment, h2=0
Methods of Studying Genetic and Environmental Contributions
Family Studies
Twin Studies
Adoption Studies (parent-child, sibling)
Combination twin/adoption studies
Family Studies
Closer, more similar
1st degree-50%
2nd degree-25%
3rd-12.5%
Unrelated-0%
Twin Studies
MZ (identical)-100%
DZ (fraternal)-50%
Adoption Studies
Parents-gene only 50%, environ. only 0%
Siblings-genes + environ. 50%, environ. only 0%
Prenatal Development
Germinal:fertilization-implantation 0-14
Embryonic:3-8 weeks
Fetal:8-birth
Embryonic
2 weeks: forms tube
3 weeks: heart beats
4 weeks: arms, legs, eyes
6-8 weeks: human-like, yolk sac disintegrates
Ectoderm
outer layer of the embryo-nervous system, skin
Mesoderm
mid layer, circulatory system, skeleton, muscles
Endoderm
inner respiratory system, digestive tract
Embryonic Stage cont'd
Placenta
separates mom's and fetus' blood, exchanges nutrients and waste
Embryonic Stage cont'd
Umbilical Cord
delivers nutrients, removes waste, connects fetus to placenta
Embryonic Stage cont'd
Organogenis
structures differentiate and form (morning sickness)
Embryonic Stage cont'd
Sensitive Periods
biologically prepared, development may be disturbed LORENZ
Embryonic Stage cont'd
Teratogens
substances/factors that may cause birth defects
prenatal death-0-2 weeks
major structural abnormalities:3-7 weeks
physical defects and minor structural abnormalities: 8-38 weeks
prenatal development
9 weeks:nervous system, movement, heartbeat
10 weeks:ultrasound
11 weeks:stepping reflex; 3 inches long
12 weeks:can tell sex
4 months:feel for space and himself in it, brain control
18 weeks:digestive system active
Prenatal Devlop. Stages cont'd
17-20:vernix (protective coating around skin) and lanugo (helps stick vernix to skin)
5 months:fingerprints, second ultrasound
6 months: age of viability
24 weeks: gains 5 lbs before birth
38-40 weeks: birth (7.5lbs, 21inches)
brain cells stages
cell proliferation-all cells identical and multiplying
cell migration-cells moving to the environment where they will be used
cell differentiation-cells form connections and develop
cell death-50% brain cells die
types of growth:
Cephalocaudal
Proximodistal
head to tail

inside out (heart before limbs)