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74 Cards in this Set

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psychotherapy
emotionally charger ineratction between trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
eclectic approach of therapy (aka psychotherapy integration)
using a blend of techniques from various therapies
psychoanalysis
free assocation= released feelings
freuds belief of the root of problems
childhoods residue of repressed impluses and conflicts
free assocation
saying whatever comes to mind
resistance
blocking of anxiety-laden material
interpretation
interpreting why people resist certain memories, and other signficant behaviors to produce insight
transference
patients transfer of emotions that are linked with their analyst
psychodynamic therapists
try to understand a patients current symptoms on themes across important relationships
humanistic perspective
help people recover by realizing their potential for self fufillment

how people grow in self awareness and self acceptance
client centered therapy

carl rogers

client centered therapy is an example of ...
therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting empathic environment to facilitate client's growth

nondirective therapy
active listening

carl rogers
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies.
behavior therapy
applies leearning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
OH mowrer
bed wetting= alarm

way to stop bed wetting
counterconditioning
behavior therapy that conditions responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors.

exposure, averise
exposure therapies
exposing people to fears they normally avoid
systematic desintitization
treatment where relaxed state is gradually associated with anxiety triggering stimuli
progressive relaxtion
training to relax body by individual muscle group
virtual reality exposure therapy
exposing people to simulations of their fears
averise conditioning
associates unpleasant state with unwanted behavior
therapy and operant conditioning
positive reinforcers used to shape behavior in a step by step manner
token economey
operant condiitoning procedure: people earn a token for exibiting desired behavior, which can be exchanged later for various privelages or treats
what happens after operant conditioning is stopped
it is hoped that social approval or a more typical life is to be the reward
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting. based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

ex. getting a depressed person to think more positivley
aaron beck
gets patients to reverse their catasptrophizing beliefs about themselves
donald meichenbaum

stress inoculation training
teaches people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.
cognitive behavior therapy
therapy that combines cognitive therapy (change self defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

getting a OCD person who wants to wash their hands to recognize that it is a compulsive urge, and have them do another enjoyable activity
family therapy
views an individual unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members. attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
clients testimonail to therapy's effectiveness
often speak positivley of it
people often entering therapy in crisis
when crises pass, they may attribute treatement to therapy
clients tendency to believe therapy wsa worth the effort
self-justifying the therapy
clients generally speak kindly of their therapists
always tend to look at their therapists favorably
500 massachuetts boys experiment
those untreated were just as normal as the others
placebo effect
the power of belief in treatment
regression towards the mean phenomenon
tendency for normal events to return towards their average state
decline effect
ESP patients cant replicate their powers
clinicians view on therapy
mos therapists testify to therapy's success
hans eysneck
people (treated or not treated) improved. time was a great healer
meta analysis
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
mary lee smith and meta analysis
psychotherapy helped ~80% of patients
natioan institue of mental health results
those not undergoing therapy often imrpove, but those undergoing therapy are more likley to improve
mary lee smith and effectiveness of different therapies
no one type of therapy is generally superior
when is therapy most effective
when the problem is clear cut
scott lilienfeld
compared number of times each type of therapy treatment is mentioned on psycinfo to normal web
francine shapiro
eye movement desentitization and reprocessing

anxious thoughts vanished as her eyes spontaneously darted about

same result occured without eye movement
SAD and therapy
seasonal affective disorder and intense light exposure will relieve symptoms
goldfried, strupp, wampold and commonalities amonst psychotherpaies
hope for demoralized people

new perspective on self and the world

empathic, trusting, caring relationship
therapuetic alliance
emotional bond between therapist and client
2 things therapies offer
hope, fresh perspective
albert ellis and allen bergin
handbook of psychotherapy and heavior change
clients perspective on therapy
people naturally get better: seeking therapy during crisis/regression towards the mean

clients believe in their therapy and that it is going to work

clients generally speak well of their therapist
clinicians perspective on therapy
clinicians are more aware of other clinicians failures

clinicians tend to see themselves favorably

if a patient goes to see another clinicians, the former therapist would proably agree that they developed a new problem
general problems of viewing therapy
spontaneous remission- symtpoms randomly go away

plabeo effect

regression towards the mean

initial misdiagnosis

multiple treatment interference

selective attrition- people who quit therapy are no longer around to speak of it

effort intrisication- justfiy the reason of actually going to therapy
best treatment for depression
behavior, cognitive, combined
best treatment for anxiety
cognition, exposure
best treatment for bulimia
cognitive, behavior
best treatment for phobia
brhavior
best treatment for bed wetting
behavior modification
therapy and family perceptions
usally a good indicator of whether the therapy has worked
double blind procedure
two groups who dont no whether they are getting the the actual treatment of placebo
biomedical therapy
prescribed medictions or medical procesdures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
double blind technique
half of patients recieve the drug, hald a similar looking placebo
classical antipsychotic drugs

drug
effects
thorazine

remove positive symtpoms of schizophrenia
atypical antipsychotic drugs


drug
effects
clorazil

blocks dopamine, seratonin receptors to remove neg effects of schiz
long term use of anti schiz medications: tardive dyskinesia
involuntary face, tongue and limb movement. possible side effect of these drugs, targets D2 dopamine receptors
side effects of D1 dopamine receptors (clozapine, risperdal, zyperxa)
obesity, diabetes
antianxiety drugs

drug
effects
xanax, ativan

depress central nervous systm and reduce axniety/tension by elevating lavels of GABA
antidepressants

drug
effects
prozac, zoloft, paxil

selective seratonin reptauke inhibitors (SSRIs) and improve moodes by elevating levels of seratonin by inhibiting reputake
nuerogenesis
birth of new brain cells, perhaps reversing stress-induced loss of neurons
mood stabalizing medications

drug
effects
lithium carbonate

hsa been used to stablize maniac, bipolar disorders. moderates levels of noreepinephrine and glutamate transmitters
electro convlusive therapy
biomedical procedure where patient recieves brief electric current
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain. used to stimulate or supress brain activity
psychosurgery

lobotomy
surgery that removes os dretroys brain tissue to alter behavior

procedure cuts the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emtoion controlling centers of the inner brain