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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adolescence as a Social Transition
A. Changing Social Roles
1. Adolescence as a SOCIAL INVENTION: other society's adol. act diff.
2. Uniqueness of current cohort’s experience of adolescence (what if 8-15 were adol, would 16,17 act diff?)
DOMAINS of social status changes
1. Interpersonal (ex. 6-8 more mature at k-8 schools)
2. Romantic (not labeled before)
3. Political
4. Economic
5. Legal/criminal
Transitions to Adulthood - Historical Perspective
1. Transitions that occur earlier now than 100 years ago (stayed at home until 25, less mobility for edu, jobs, fewer residences).
2. Transitions that occur later (40 yrs ago left much earlier, 17/18) Now: earliest 18 to 30 with grad. school. Entered final occup. earlier even 50 yrs ago. 1500s Army Gen. were 19/20. Technological advances.
2. Transitions that occur later
SOCIAL REDEFINITION
1. Rites of passage
2. The Marginal Man/ Marginal Teen
3. Age of Majority
4. Continuous Vs. Discontinuous Transitions
5. Leaving home
1. Grad, bar mitzba, driv, piercings. Too gradual? problems?
2. Not contriub to anyone; insignificant days; bubble (media, class, home) aimless.
3. 18 or 21, pres. 35
4. contin (reading, managing time, interacting with adults) discon (sex, caring for infants, job, drinking)
5. leaving home as contin; early age (less well educ, econ, career, already have problems though).
Social-Developmental Task View of Adolescent Transitions
1. Autonomy (yet still dep; transfer emotions to peers now)
2. Intimacy
3. Identity (sense within many diff domains, diff from others)
4. Sexuality (cultu. det; comptetently; preserces sense of relationships)
5. Achievement (school, etc)
6. Practical Skills
Poverty & Racial/Ethnic Minority Status
1. Neighborhood influences
2. Changes in “Minority” populations by 2020
1. (ranges; diff. transition views) Stressors of poverty (role models for identity, better if poor in wealthy neighborhoodl 96% vs. 7% new someone beaten/shot/stabbed ; .5 in nyc knew someone murdered. Rite of passage first gunshot seen; 25% dropped out of school and 60% in nyc.
2. over half of all U.S. adol will be min, none over 50%. Media attention of immigrants and minority pop suddenly.
Defining features of puberty: Physical
1. Overview of Primary Areas of Change
2. Body size changes
1. Growth spurt (6-12? with 2SD in girls, 12-16 in boys)
Asynchronicity (torso vs. legs, awk, selfcon)
Muscle mass (boys at 14; age 12 diff btwn genders socialized; girls with body fat and inc nutritional demands at age 8 nec for reprod; menstruation at 95lb) Brain grows (struc, pruning/rid of meaningless connec of neurons; do not match with cognitive changes) Circ/respir changes (inc stamina with same muscle).
3. Hormonal changes
4. Sexual maturation
5. Nutrition, health & puberty
3. No new hormones but in diff levels. Activational role (wake up at adol; suppressed maturity at birth) Do not affect mood directly much, mood more variable when changing rapidly; sex hormones may affect beh (ex. high testos in boys young affects early thoughts about sex but not actions) Delayed phase preference (24.5 or 25 hr clock, not just social, across cultures)
4. Sexual maturation
5. Nutrition, health & puberty
4. The capacity to reproduce, menarchy (girls can become preg 2 wks before); first ejac; sec sex char (dev over a 2-5 yr per) Boys (9, 9.5 and as late as 13.5 starting; fac/underarm hair a few yrs later; oily skin, body grows). Girls (8-13 begins, Af. Am earlier, obesity? 1/4 begin at age 7).
5. Nutrition, health & puberty
5. Secular shift over past 100 yrs (Puberty contin earlier. This generation 2-3 yrs earlire than grandparents. seems to be leveled off since 20 yrs.) Physical changes diff direc from societal changes. Reflec of nutritional changes (ex. prim tribes not until 17/18) Menarchy earlier in less cohesive familities, absent fathers (physical proximity to biol father delays puberty. Hormones influenced by social circumstances.
The psychosocial impact of puberty
1. Changing Relationships with Parents
2. Moodiness
1. Phy distance inc, psy distant for adol and parents too.
2. More var (rapid inc/higher levels of hormes have small effects) Not more ill-tempered, also due to changing appearance.
The psychosocial impact of puberty
3. Early maturation
3. Boys (more confid, more delinquent and drug users (assoc with older peers?), more freq and intense temper tantrums. Age 38: more responsible, cooperative, disciplined, sociable, more conventional, conforming, humerless, very socialized).
Girls (as or more pop (with mixed gender, girls as pop), more depressed and likely to do exp anxiety and eating disordres, less expressive, more submissive, withdrawn, less assured. Overall self-esteen: lower in US (fat) Germany (higher, less a concern) More interest in boys, inc in problematic beh only if present before. Perceived timing of maturation vs. actual.
4. Late maturation
4. Boys and girls get in less trouble.
Boys: seem less mature, less likely for leadership pos, higher levels of curiosity, exploratory beh, soc initiative (devel skills). Adulthood: impulsive, insightful, creatively playful. Girls: Higher levels of educ attainment.
5. Maturational Deviance Hypothesis
Why diff btwn genders. Deviance hypoth: early girls mature before girls and boys (but, late maturing boys. . .); societal portrayal of female bodies, girls seen as more sexual and boys more adult; peer relations betwn girls and boys, girls more vulnerable, boys less. Early/late maturation may be a risk factor (only if potentiating factors occur or else may be positive) Problems are usu for those with prob before puberty.
Cognitive Transitions & Moral Development
1. What we mean by cognitive changes of adolescence (systematic)
2. Social/Political/Legal Implications of these Changes
Basic Cognitive Changes
1. memory improves
2. processing speed increases
3. cognitive monitoring
1. Biol change? More exp to hang things on; emotion.
3. Recog the limits of what you can think through, our perspec maybe wrong, dangers possible.
Piaget & Stages of Cognitive Development
1. sensorimotor
2. preoperational
1. (0-2) Cog devel to infants to adulthood; understand own actions and how sense go with actions/motor.
2. 2-6; use of symbols to rep objects internally esp via language, rudimentary thinking about world, not many logical abilities.
3. concrete operations
4. formal operations
3. 6-11, mastery of logic and devel of rational thinking.
4. Devel of abstract and hyptoh reasoning
5. Signs of formal operations:
6. Limitations to Theory
5. Relativist vs. absolute thinking, metacog (thinking about thinking), multidimen thinking (diff sides to every argument), perspective taking.
6. Depends on situation across ages (panic at 38 and calm at 12).
Social Sequelae of Cognitive Changes
1. Perspective taking vs. Egocentrism
2. Black & White Thinking
1. Beh with others. Egocen: can only see things from your view. Assume almost everything is about them (ex. outfit).
2. See nuances and subleties later, easier; as about parents.
3. Imaginary Audience
4. Personal fable
5. Invulnerability
3. Everything in life happens with other people watching/talking about you.
4. My exp is unique and does not follow the same rules (ex. living a TV life; pres of world possibility)
5. Nothing bad will happen (cog changes, risk-taking; experienced less, soc value, relative)
Moral Development
1. Kohlberg’s Theory & Stages
2. preconventional
3. conventional
4. postconventional
1. The Heinz Dilemma.
2. Ex. not wrong at all, should not take drug b/c might get caught; the end results, own impulses.
3. Soc norms, not allowed to steal, break rules, druggist acting legally.
4. What principles applying, life > property; wrong, maintaining soc order.
5. Critiques:
Gilligan’s Critique: "In a different voice"
Hypothetical (but does predict beh), not real life, ise one form of moral thinking really better than another? Ex. low score if in middle ground.
1. Justice vs. Care Orientation
2. A "different" voice, not a "female" voice
Controversies and Questions
1. When/how do adolescents become competent as adult decision-makers?
2. Judgment (& Risky behavior) (peer pressure, makes sense to take risks to learn for future, or discounting future?)
3. Competence vs. performance (not showing the competence)
Family life cycles
1. John Hill -Systems perspective on adolescent development
1. Systems perspectives on adol devel. "Be kind to your parents, it's a difficult stage of life." Change to adol and parents; parents at mid-life with more responsibility, sense of mortality, aging vs. invuln of teens; new adult in many ways in home (more opinions, jockeying for control, sys changing, number of mature people)
Beyond storm and stress
All adol not having highly contentious rel with parents; the 25% were not getting along prior to adol. Do however get more distnt phy/emotionally. Trying to func indep. Most often about 15,16 not by 17,18.
Adolescent Autonomy and Relatedness (Initial Overview)
1. Seesaw Model
2. Multi-dimensional Model
1. Hist perspec on autonomy vs. relatedness (30 yrs ago). Bad model: sense of authomy a threat to relationship. Idea of a balance nec between the two, must be in middle of extremes.
2. Ideal with high of both. Ex. close friends relat. Should not fight autonomy as parents.
Goals of Attachment Theory
1. Beyond "Loving" Parents
2. Everyone gets attached (almost)
1. May still hve a bad relationship
2. (except for war zones/orphanges); biol rooted; ex. ducks; infants have longest span of dep of any speciies, all mammals. What kind of attach (sec or insec)?
3. Assessment & Correlates & Predictions
3. Adult Attach Interview; Contingent Response: affectionate and supportive when the child needs/wants it.
Bowlby's notion of 'internal working models'
1. From Memories to Models of childhood and adolescence
2. Models are stored outside of consciousness
1. Internal models of relationships, generalizing without consc thought; parent's treatment not determinative but important.
2. Ex. relationship with parents difficult to determine, relative to what?
3. People learn BOTH sides of relationships
4. Characteristics of Adaptive Models
3. Pos and neg, ex. having had good parents and becoming one.
4. Some work better than others, accuracy of extrapolations from past. Over time, should be adaptive.
Assessing Adolescents’ and Adults' Models of Attachment
1. Focus on Information PROCESSING not CONTENT
2. Role of Coherence
3. Semantic & Episodic Memories
1. Not whether good or bad relationship.
2. Focus on coherence.
3. ex. Sec - Pos - Pos; Dismissing/Avoidant - Very Pos - Absent/Contrad; Preoccup/Ambivalent - Conflicting/Absent/Caught up in Anger - Overly extensive/Wandering/Angry; Secure - Neg/Balanced - Neg/Balanced
3. Semantic & Episodic Memories Examples
4. Attachment as an ACTIVE SYSTEM
Dismissing - fantasy, ex. blizzard, very pos.
Conflicting - cannot step back, contradic, angry, preocc.
Secure now - Neg, bal -(model accurately processing info).
4. In operation; systems interact with environ vs. static; from infancy onward. Attachment beh only when enc, not constantly (ex. AC), Parents inconsis resp (preocc loop), parents not resp (withdrawal).
Attachment as a System
1. Review of the Attachment System in Action
2. Why do Insecure Models Form?
3. Multiple Conflicting Models
4. Can people "forget" major parts of their relationship with their parents?
- Coping varies
- Coherence: people form multiple models when cannot think freely Ex. father too busy and also defensive, no right to complain; do not even ask - difficulty thinking clearly, "He did the best he could).
- Preoccup: Lost in attachment memories; never have space to back up and evaluate, smothering parents, constantly in relationships. Can happen outside of consc. Ex. Not thinking about painful parts.
5. Information from Dyadic Listening Tasks
5. Diff info into each ear, one) a story with partic repeating back; two) random words with mild shocks every time the word "cranberry." Usu. unable to remember word. Later, somatic skin response when reading word on list sweat but not consc. (Ex. prof left with pos reinf).
Functions of the Three Major Types of Attachment Models in Adolescence
1. Secure
Expect parents to be available. Not hesistant for help but not clingy. Worth maintaining a strong relationship; can be autonomous, indep enough to argue with parents. Does not idolize parents but challenge parents.
2. Insecure-Overall
Not expect parent to be consistently availabl; distance becomes threatening. Argu may lead to break in relationship. Autonomy of adoles becomes dangerous.
3. Insecure-Dismissing
Close relat. not worth the time (not felt but reinf); not feeling the emotions. Avoidant in infants: act as through parents leaving rm is not important but heart rate inc.
4. Insecure-Preoccupied
5. Adolescence as a time to re-evaluate models.
Overly involved in attach. exp; puddle. Ask directly or express distress (ex. depression: loop...)
5. Chances for change; hypothetical thinking for insecure to secure model.
What is Attachment in Adolescence?
1. States of Mind vs. Current Relationships
How you think about attachmet now vs. past/present relationship with parents (some links) More general.
2. The Importance of Coherence
3. Adolescence as a time of revision of Attachment Models
2. Those who do not make sense of the past are more likely to repeat it.
3. Revise attachment models. Formal op, logic, emotional distance from parents.
Long term predictions
1. Birth to age 18?
1. Some stability in attach (infancy/12 months-18) Not strong as deterministic; Correl. range from 0-0.3,0.4. No stability with important disrupting events (poverty, death) vs. parents always there.
2. As parents to future offspring
3. Across 3 generations
4. Predictors of CHANGE in adolescent attachment security
2. Very strong. Ex. age 18 to predict, 75-80% accuracy of infant before birth (6 months prior)
3. Some strength (grandparents - us).
4. Extremely stable for part of per. Gradual uptrend insec. However: 1) Poverty 2) Enmeshed with parents 3) Depressed: stress and usu cannot get help from parents; poverty - parents overwhelmed; enmeshed - overpersonalized, bitter, angry, cannot go source for help; depressed - pushing away those near them. Irritable, moody.
Correlates of Attachment
1. Parent-teen relationship correlates
1. Secure: sensitivity to adol. (perceived confidence questionnaire to parents about children's answers) know the responses - secure children. Stay connec despite disagre, adoles de-idealize their parents; overall relat as pos, can also be secure fi relat is bad but adol is aware.
2. Social competence & peer relationships
3. Delinquency
2. How well liked ex. each named top 10 people: most named. People liked to spend time with.
3. More complex; maternal control effective if secure. Respond more to maternal control if secure...
4. Depression
5. Quality of future offspring-parent relationships
6. Quality of marital relationships
7. Major discontinuities also exist.
4. Most likely: preoccup. Whining - believe exagg importance. Feel more dep by expressing problems freq.
5. Quality of future off-spring-parent rel. predict.
6. Happier for secure
7. (No evidence that infant sec determines rest of life)
Summary of Theory
1. Everyone gets attached
2. Some relationships are secure, others insecure
3. Relationships become internalized over time
4. Not a fully conscious process but still changeable.
5. Attachment States of Mind Influence Social Functioning
6. Attachment Displays some stability across time and generations.
AUTONOMY IN FAMILIES - The Question of “Control”
Types of Autonomy
1. Behavioral
2. Verbal
3. Emotional
(4. functional: can you live indep)
What is important? Maybe quality of negotiation?
1. Who will decide what child does.
2. Can you disagree with parents? (ex. much beh autonomy do as pleased but no verbal autonomy)
3. Can you feel indep of parents? vs. sep-anxiety (may be used instead of restricting beh)
Behavioral Autonomy: Baumrind’s Typology of Parenting Styles
1. Authoritarian
1. Very high in control. Leave little beh/verbal control foradoles. Middle-class, safe environ: passive adoles, les soc skilled, more dep on parents, less curious, stiffled. High risk environ: good rel with parents but get in trouble func outside how. Rel. healthy (Parents: not very wawrm).
2. Indulgent/Permissive
2. Not saying no, punishments conseq. Children lack struc; not prepared for world (parents may/may not be wawrm) May be ok with very compliant children in good environ. Less mature/responsible, more conforming to peers, less likely to be leaders.
3. Indifferent
3. Similar results but have few rules to distraction. Rich or poor; Unsure about whereabouts; esp busy parents. Also depressed parents: cannot enforce conseq. Perhaps temporarily; lack of energy. Children usu delinquent; like parents in some sense (irresponsible) More likely in poor families: delin (drugs for rich).
4. Authoritative
5. Why do kids with Authoritative Parents develop Autonomy?
4. Balance of warmth and control; do not want to disappoint parents. Children: most confident, reassured, creative, well in school.
5. Why do children of auth parents devel autonomy?