Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the finding that we remember material better if we distribute or spread our practice of this material over time.
Spacing Effect
people are asked to remember material they have seen without further prompting.
participants are shown material and asked if it is the same material they were shown earlier. If a participant correctly recognizes a stimulus that was seen earlier, it is called a hit; if the participant claims to have seen a stimulus that was not presented it is called a false alarm.
participants are allowed to recall material in any order, rather than being asked to recall it in the order in which it was presented.
Free Recall
A theoretical framework that views the operations of the brain as analogous to that of a computer, with information being processed in a sequence of simple operations. The main processing stages of memory are coding, storage, and retrieval.
Information Processing
developing a code to represent an event in memory.
maintaining a code in memory over time
– The process of finding a code when it is needed for further processing.
The number of items that can be accurately recalled, in the correct order, immediately after exposure.
Memory Span
memory for material presented recently, or alternatively, the temporary system in which these memories are believed to be held while they are processed.
short term memory
Memory for experiences that occurred much earlier, or, alternatively, the memory system in which these enduring memories are believed to be stored. There is no agreement about precisely how much time must elapse before a memory is considered to be long term, but it is often thought to be about 20 to 30 seconds.
long term memory
in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, processes that regulate the flow of info. And that are under an individual’s voluntary control. The main control processes are rehearsal, coding, and retrieval.
control processes
Improved recall for items from the beginning of a list compared with items from the middle.
Improved recall for items from the end of a list compared with items from the middle.
store in which sensory input is held very briefly to allow time to identify it. There are separate stores for holding auditory input (echoic memory) and visual input (iconic memory); both are thought to hold material for at most a few seconds.
Sensory memory
a temporary store in which info is held during initial processing; it is also used for combining and elavorating information already in long term storageBaddeley has proposed it has three main components: phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, and central executive.
Working Memory
The component of working memory that holds acoustically coded info. Info held on the loop decays rapidly, but it can be refreshed if it is repeated in subvocal speech – in effect, talking to yourself.
Phonological loop
The component of working memory that performs a similar function for visual material; it holds this material during initial processing nad also when it is retrieved from long-term memory in the form of an image. It also holds spatial information about the location of objects in the environment.
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
the component of working memory that controls the allocation of processing capacity to different tasks; it also integrates information held in its slave systems and in long term memory.
Central executive
a theory that assumes that the more deeply a stimulus is processed during coding – for example, the more attention is paid to its meaning, the better it will be remembered.
Levels of processing
assumes that the formation of a permanent memory trace depends on the strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons, and that this process requires time. The more this occurs to a memory, the more resistant it will be to disruption by events such as brain damage.
Consolidation theory
A limited mental resource that is needed for processing some kinds of information. We can control the allocation of _______ between competing tasks (selective __________) and also the amount of ____________ that goes to any one task.
A task in which participants listen to two messages simultaneously, one in each ear.
dichotic listening
Repeating out loud a message heard in one ear during a dichotic listening task.
A theory of attention that assumes that all aspects of sensory input receive preliminary processing but that only some stimuli can be given enough attention to allow full recognition. Info that is not allowed through will quickly decay and be forgotten.
Filter theory
Increased efficiency in processing resulting from practice, to the point where attention is no longer needed for executing the task. One result is that a task can be carried out at the same time as other tasks without interfering with them.
The development of a single code to represent several items. One result is that holding all these items in short-term memory uses up no more storage capacity than was originally required to remember just one item.