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58 Cards in this Set

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Ch 8
Psychosocial (deprivation) Dwarfism
Children do not make the height and weight gains as they should.
under condtions of stress, such as motional deprivation the body doesnt secrete as many growth hormones
Ch 8
Rate and pattern growth in early childhood
slower in early childhood then in infancy
height 2-3 inches per year
weight 5-7 pounds per year
lose fat and become extremely active
gain muscle- to do activites
boys more mucsle mass
girls more fat tissue
Ch 8
Development in the Skeletal System
X-rays to determine bone growth, 45 new ephicies show up
teeth- baby teeth, start to lose primary. girls before boys
prolonged malnutrition affects health of permanent teeth.
60% of children in poverty have tooth decay
Asians- on the avg, short
Ch 8
Describe Brain Development
Brain increases with weight during early childhood.
Age 2- 70% of adult weight
Age 6- 90% of its adult weight
Ch 8
Pruning
Death of neurons that aren't used
Ch 8
Synaptic Formation
Occurs when one learns so much, stronger by learning.personal experience
Ch 8
Factors that affect pjysical growth and health
Heredity- hormones, pituitary glands, affects dev. of many body tissues
Thyroid Stimulating hormoes secreted by pituitary in the brain.
No thyroxin leads to mental retardation
Ch 8
common dietary deficiencies in preschoolers, and what are their effects
Nutrition- dont take time out to eat. picky, food prefrences
lack of iron leads to red blood cells. Anemia- irratibility
lack of vitamin A affects skin and hair
Vitamin C- affects wound healing, and iron absobtion
Ch8
comparing to other nations in immunization rates?
Industrialized nations, children are typically immunized against infectious diseases, in 3rd world countries where children are often malnuturioished, immunizations are not availiable, many children have disabilities resluting of complications from malnutirtion and disease.
Ch 8
most common types of childhood injuries? What factors are related to childhood injuries?
Ephicies influence growth of bone.
40% of deaths in early childhood are due to unintentional injuries/accidents.
common- cars, pedestrian accidents, drowning, poisonings, burns, falls, swollowing foregin objects.

Factors relating- male- more active, tempermaent- highly active- prone to accidents
poverty, low parental education
# of children in the home
Ch 8
fine motor development in early childhood. What influences its development?
refine and Dramatic improvement, self-help skills
4yrs- better off at coats, zippers, shirts
printing and writing- identify with letters and words, drawing, young child uses ulnar grasp. 3yrs- simple, 4yrs-more detalied 5yrs- complex.

body buils finluences gross motor skills.
boys better off at gross motor skills,girls better off at fine motor skills.
CH 8
perceptual development in early childhood
Differreciating of writing from non-writing with scribbling
associate first letter or word with whole word .
letter reversals are common
Ch 9
egocentrism
inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
Ch 9
Irreversablilty
inability to mentally go thorugh a series of steps in a problem in the reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Ch 9
Animistic Thinking
attributing life like qualities to inanimate objects
Ch 9
centration
focusing on one aspect of a situation rather then the others.
Ch 9
Conservation
Realizations that things are the same, eventhough they look different.
Ch 9
Transductive Reasoning
Linkin things togethers because they are close in time or space
Ch 9
class inclusion
the relation between two classes in which all members of one class are included in the other, “All humans are animals.”
Ch 9
fast mapping
a mental process whereby a new concept can be learned after a breif encounter
cH 9
Recasts
Reconstructing childrens incorrect speech into a more appropriate form
Ch 9
overregulaization
grammical rules to words that are expections.
ex. i runned faster than you, i have two feets
Ch 9
Three Mountain task
Egocentrism- young child only sees his or her own perspective. doesnt take a view on whats on the other side...
Ch 9
conservation problem
having a tall galss of water and a bowl filled with the same amount of water. looks different but both have the same amount in it
Ch 9
Piaget’s preoperational stage
2-7years of age, in which rapid growth in representation takes place
thought is not yet logical
Ch 9
impact Piaget has had on education
1: discovery learning
2. childrens readiness to learn
3. acceptance of the individual differences
Ch 9
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and his explanation of children’s “private speech
society and culture play a big role in cognitive development.

Private sppech- childrnes self-directed speech. language become interalized, self-guidence.
Ch 9
Vygotsky’s impact on education.
Assisted discovery, peer colaboration- groups have tasks to work together and learn from each other.
Ch 9
the young child’s psychological awareness/theory of mind.
Area of psych where children understand mental states, thinking feeling etc...by age 2-3
age 4- aware that people have false beliefs
noisy environment interfers with thinking.
Ch 9
literacy development in early childhood
preschoolers are aware of written language.
discriminate writing from scribbling. learn letters are parts of words and associate certain sounds and phomnes.
Ch 9
math development in early childhood.
Distinguish between "big and "small", "many" and "few"
begin to count- Rote- count right to 10, lack one to one correspondence
3-4yrs- develope 1 to 1 correspondence
Cardinality principle- last number counted equals total number
counting beginning at number other than one (5yrs)
CH 9
developmentally appropriate and inappropriate methods for fostering literacy and math development in early childhood.
Literacy:
provide literacy rich, home and preschool environments.
Engage in interactive book rading
provide outings to libraries, and communitry centers
Ch 9
types of preschools. What factors are important in determining the quality of care in early childhood programs
Academic- focus on congnitive skills
Child centered- congnitive and physical development and social skills
Quality of care- effects development
group size, child/caregiver ration
caregivers education
caregivers personal commitment
Ch 9
language development in early childhood
Extremely rapid during childhood.
vocab- age 2- 200 words
age 6- 10,000 words
action words, quickly incorporated.
fast mapping- tiger like lion, principle of mutual exclusivity- furniture different from animals,
synaptic boostrapping- what word is in terms of how its used
ch 10
Self-Esteem
making good/ bad judgements about yourself
Ch 10
Guilt
he or she has violated a moral standard, and is responsible for that violation.
ch 10
Empathy
Feeling emotions similar to another, you feel sad for your friend.
associated with pro-social behaviors which help build realationships, helping, sharing, cooperating.
ch 10
typical/characteristic of a preschooler’s self-concept
"what are you like?"
physical characteristis, activites that you do, and the possessions you have
Ch 10
preschoolers’ understanding of emotions
Basic emotion, joy sadnessm fear, and anger. recognize and label them, correctly identify them and understands what causes basic emotions.
Ch 10
preschoolers’ emotional self-regulation. How does it develop? What effects does it have?
Emotional self-regulation: ablilty to control emotions
Develops: by observations and explicit instruction.
Effects: limit sensory input, talk to ones self, change goals.
Ch 10
Parten’s categories of play

NSUOP
Non- social activity
Solitary Play-by yourslef
unoccupied play-watching others play
onlooker play-obersves, attempts to try
parallel play- play near but dont interact
Ch 10
How does play change in early childhood? What types of play increase and decrease?
Non-social play decreases with age.
olde they get the more social interaction increases
Ch 10
psychoanalytic view of moral development
Freud's theory:
Phallic stage-Oedipal/electra conflict. the superego(conscience) forms though an identification process with the same sex parent
Ch 10
the behavioral and social learning view of moral development
Behavioral: operant conditioning- reinforcement increases future behavior.
punishment decreases future behavior
Social Behavior: children learn through observation and imitiation
Ch 10
the cognitive developmental view of moral development
Piaget's Theory:
2 Stages of moral reasoning: (5-10years)
1. Heteronomous morality: children think rules are permanent, if you do something wrong, somehow/way you're going to get punished
2. Autonomous Morality (10+yrs)
rules are changeable, no belief in immanent justice
something done on purpose is worse than by accident.
ch 10
How can parenting styles affect moral development?
Baumrids 4 parenting styles:
1.Authoritarian- strict rules, not responsive, firm limits, spanking
2. Authoritative (democratic)- sets limits and controls, rules lead to consequences. uses different alternatives to punishment (withdrawl, limites choices etc..)
3. Permissive (indulgent)- not good at setting rules, rules not enforced. spoil their children and give in.
4. Uninvloved (permissive/neglectful)- rules not enforced, dont want to be botherd by kids, not responsive
Ch 10
the development of aggression.
Types:
Instrumental- used to get something
Hostile: carries harmful intent. intentions of hurting someone else
Forms: physical(overt)obvious, kicking, biting, hitting etc..
verbal- Name calling
Realtional (social)- "we dont like you"
CH 10
Discuss the various types of child maltreatment. What factors contribute to child maltreatment? What are the consequences of child maltreatment? How can child maltreatment be prevented?
Child Maltreatment: types
Physical- pain, injury
Sexual- forcing children, fondeling
Emotional(Pshychological)- harming self-concept
Negelct- parents fail to provide for children.
Physical neglect- food, clothes, shelter, reduced attention/supervision
Emotional neglect- Fail to provide love and attention to children
Ch 5 (Book)
the “watch me” theory of learning
Good teachers always watch the leraner. learning priorities are not valued by those whom they are attached to
Ch 5 (Book)
"little sponge” theory of learning
you can teach any child any subject at any age in an intellectually responsible way.
ch 5 (book)
the “look harder” theory of learning. What are the assumptions about young children’s thinking
The child has not yet externalized
concepts. They see the worldly
differently than the adult
ch 5 (book)
the various types of play through which children learn and give examples of each
Master play- the idea that objects exist even when they are no longer present to the senses.
Repetitive play - Practice makes perfect
Innovative play- pushing the limits of their newfound skill, riding a bike, then trying no hands
Kinship play- enjoying ones company without saying much
Therapeutic Play- children act out experiences they have had in the hospital and Child Life specialists address any fears communicated during play.
Ch 6 (book)
young children’s thinking. How is it different from the thinking of older elementary school-aged children
children think more concrete
Ch 6 (book)
the “age of reason.”
concrete operations,
syllogistic reasonin also enable the child to understand that one things can be two at
the same time. more girls than children?
ch 6 (book)
recommendations for helping children achieve the age of reason
self-directed play experiences nourish and support the childs maturing abilities
ch 6 (book)
how the understanding of number develops.
nominal sense as a name. use numbers to identify athletes. covenient label for identifying.
ch 6 (book)
how children build literacy skills
nominal, learn sight words like stop and go. being read to.
ch 9
the cognitive developmental
view of moral development.
piagets 2 stages of moral reasoning:
1. Heteronomous- 5-10yrs.
children think rules are permanent
immanent justice- if you do something wrong, someway/how you will be punished
2. Autonomous Morality- 10yrs+ rules are changable
no belief in immanet justice
something done on purpose is worse than by accident.