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26 Cards in this Set

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Clinical Psychology
• Research and practice dealing primarily with origins, identification, and treatment of psychopathology and maladaptive emotional or behavioral functioning
• Some clinical psychologists also deal with normal and non-normal personality (vs separate area) issues
- Training in research and therapy.
Developmental Psychology
• Research on normal human development across most domains of psychology (social, cognitive, language, perception, neurophysiological), from infancy to old age.
• The focus is on how and when we acquire basic abilities, and individual pathways of change in those abilities over time.
- Prenatal to aging, largest faculty represented, ex. social devel, cog, lang autonomy
Cognitive Psychology
• Research on thought processes, memory, perception, language, and brain structure and function as it relates to these issues
• Research often conducted through laboratory experiments.
Ex. reasoning about aesthetics, langu devel, how we make legal dec, virtual reality
Neuropsychobiology
• Research on the brain and nervous system in relation to behavior and thought
• This research is generally done on both human and animal models, and is a psychologically oriented offshoot of neural sciences
Community Psychology
• Research on the ways in which societal issues impact individual and community functioning (law, poverty, race, sexual orientation)
• Emphasis on people in societal context, and on prevention of individual and societal problems
• Research often conducted in naturalistic settings
Ex. joint-community and clinical.
Quantitative Psychology
• Research exploring new approaches to measurement and data analysis
• Goals include improving our ability to answer research questions across all domains of psychology
Educational/School Psychology
• Research on effective teaching and learning practices in the school context
• Counseling related to child adjustment in the school context
• Assessment of children for learning and behavioral difficulties
Counseling Psychology
• Research and therapeutic training for non-psychopathological adjustment and life goals (education, work, interpersonal)
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
• Research and hands-on consulting regarding how businesses and organizations are structured, and how they function most effectively both for production and employee wellbeing
Social Psychology
• Research on the ways in which our thought and behavior are shaped by the people and circumstances in our environment
• Research generally achieved through lab-based experimental designs, and covers a wide variety of basic functioning and societal issues.
II. Beyond the BA: Graduate Study
A. Master's Degrees
(Or entry level positions w/ BA->business, soc services, beh counselor such as with autistic children, cannot be a "psychologist.") A. Usu counseling or school psy to practice as a counselor; not nec lead to being a psychologist.
B. PhD/EdD
C. PsyD
B. Involves research even w/out doing so in career (ex all faculty in psy depart). Particip in designing/conducting/analy rsearch. EdD: educ psy. C. Reasonably new (10-15 yrs); Doctor of Psychology; purey therapy oriented (research rare), some programs in Va.
III. Career Choices
A. Academic Careers
A. Resarch, teach, practice. Psy in education school, curry, application to educ depart of psychiatric medicine, neurology, ex in law schools-> study decision making; equity in legal sys. In business schools (I/O; social psy)
B. Non-academic Research Careers
Not affiliated w/ univ; not and for profit in consulting forms; government (fed/local) research, congress mandated research. ex. National Children's Study (impact of environ) Collect data, statis consulting, Depart of Health and Human ser, FBI, defense, CIA, business for marketing research, ETS.
C. Non-research Careers
Despite training in research, consumer of research. Private practice, psy in prisons, therapists for CIA, consulting, law (jury consultant), human resources, advertising, microsoft (consumer use issues, children's games).
Review: The Research Process End-to-End
I. The Planning Stages
A. Developing an idea
A. Observations, often explanations of published research, testing pieces of theories, testing extensions of our own work, etc.
B. Searching the literature
C. Formulating hypotheses
B. Must contribute to existing body of work, esp psychinfo and other references, every major work ever done on topic. C. Based on theory, researech (could do exploratory research if no/few previous studies), what exactly to study.
D. Designing your study
1) Causal ques (exper design), predictive (longit, short term?), combination of longit starting w/ event or manip. Depends on hypoth. 2) Choose Measures, then to illicit IV for ex. (if non-exper-> measures to validity/reliability tap construct), what is the best measure of depression? 3) Select Analytic Approach. Will data be suitable, right format? Enough power for analy? Det which analy, work backward to det number of partic, usu overest to be safe (ex technical difficulties, not completing ques)
E. Seeking provisional IRB approval
F. Seeking funding
E. Apply for approval, nothing egregious at this point, need funding usu grants. F. LONG process, fed govt or private, write out full lit rev; contribution; complete design; power analy; what you expect to find.
II. Implementing Your Study
A. Obtaining final IRB approval
A. Recommendations to alter research; revise, submit Again for funding. Submit again for approval. Anticipate risks (ex feel embarrassed, be upset by ques, using decep), what to do to minimize neg impact? Submit copies of informed consent, may req study revisions. (2 yrs later. . .)
B. Training a research team/pilot research
C. Recruiting participants
D. Collecting data
B. Sometimes before applying for funding. 1) Training 2) Preliminary data: address problems. C. How to gain access to popul, flyers, ads, particular school, community setting surveys, who are the partic? D. Varies in time (day/wk to years), groups or indiv.
III. Working with Data
A. Entering data
B. Cleaning and checking data
C. Conducting analyses
D. Interpretation and follow-up
A. 1) Directly to SPSS? Usu double entered to det errors, two diff people. 2) Check data (out of range values) -> Partic mistakes in ans ques (not a possible ans?), outliers present? what to do? Leave out if unlikely to be true? All data musthave var/value labels, document which var constructed from which measures, combined var? C. 1) Frequenceis (usu must be basically normal, not too restricted in range, mean, SD, med, mode (Descriptive first) 2) Inferential analyses (may lead to follow-up analy, why to include demographics before, regular planned and Follow-up analy (changes usu; search more literature) Can be really difficult.
IV. Sharing Information
A. Conference presentations
Share w/ field, usu early on, ex. APA, APS, other societal conf, dozens and dozens of conf, apply even before finished w/ study. Posters (brief summary, background), symposium talks (15 min, very difficult. 4-5 people, intro, 4-5 talks in succession, then discussion/critique of talks perhaps of same theme.
B. Journal publications
B. After changes in details from conf; then journal (usu a few yrs after data collection, not as new as in conf.) APA format (cannot use since/while unless for passage of time, etc.) May have to reformat, my irritate reviewers, anony reviewers (you and them), 80% of time: no thanks resp for top journal submissions, maybe to revise. Almost never accepted first time, usu 3-6 months before first response. Several reviews usu. Most publishing is in journals.
C. Book chapters/Books
C. Not usu entire bks alone but in edited volumes w/ unifying themes (thereotical or empirical), gnenerally less rigorous than journals, not peer reviews, publishing still not automatic. Vary widely in how scientific.
D. Sharing data and measures
Meta-analy (empirical reviews), Obligation to do so (via email usu) Do not say no, by this time overlaping other projects and begin planning stage again. Paid nothing for publishing in journal, must pay for reprints. Researchers not usu for monetary gain, little money for bk ch.