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50 Cards in this Set

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Hypothetical Constructs
Terms like learning, memory, and perception that were used as labels for the theoretical processes that underlie human thought and behavior.
Thinking
The manipulation or transformation of some internal representation.
Acquisition
Used to describe learning. Also known as encoding, or putting information into memory.
Retention Interval
The time interval between the acquisition of new information (learning) and its retrieval.
Retrieval
The act of recalling or remembering information that had been previously acquired (learned).
Episodic Memory
Memory for events in which we can remember our own participation.
Semantic Memory
Memory for facts like word meanings and the multiplication tables.
Declarative Memory
Knowledge that can be verbalized easily.
Motor Memory
Memory for the performance of motor skills like swimming or riding a bicycle.
Procedural Memory
Memory for accomplishing some task such as using a side rule or operating equipment.
Automatic Memory
Remembering that seems effortless such as the memory for the frequency of events.
Effortful Memory
Remembering that requires the deliberate and conscious use of strategies such as memory for a series of dates.
Intentional Learning
Used to describe learning efforts and activities that are engaged in when a learner is deliberately trying to learn something so that it can be recalled later.
Incidental Learning
Learning that occurs without any deliberate effort, such as learning the plot of a television show or the habits of family members.
Implicit Memory
Memory about which we have little conscious knowledge.
Explicit Memory
Memory for information that can be discussed and described. Compare with implicit memory.
Illusion of Truth
When a message is forgotten and the name of a person (or an event) that was in the forgotten message is encountered at some time in the future, this person (or event) feels familiar. People look for reasons why it would feel familiar and decide that the new message must be true. This illusion operates without conscious awareness.
Advance Organizers
Outlines or other summaries that are used before learning to assist with the process of acquisition.
Inert Knowledge
Knowledge that isn't recalled when it is needed.
Encoding Specificity
The cues that are available at learning (or encoding) will be useful if they are also available at retrieval.
Interference Theory of Forgetting
A theory of how we forget that attributes forgetting to "interference" or displacement of the to-be-remembered items by other material that has been previously or subsequently learned.
Working Memory
The "place" where knowledge is consciously manipulated or transformed. Thinking is constrained because working memory has a limited capacity.
Chunking
A memory process in which a number or related items are stored and retrieved as a unit in order to facilitate memory.
Metamemory
A person's knowledge about his or her own memory system; for example, knowing that you have to repeat a series of digits in order to maintain them in memory.
Ease of Learning Judgements
Individual estimates of how easy or difficult it will be to learn a skill or information. This type of judgment is made before the learning process.
Quality of Learning Judgments
Individual estimates of how well material is being learned. This type of judgment is made during the learning process.
Feelings of Knowing Judgments
Individual estimates of how well something is known. This type of judgment is made after the learning process.
Degree of Confidence Judgments
Individual estimates of how whether a particular response is correct. This type of judgment is made at the time of retrieval.
Mnemonic Devices
Memory aids or techniques that are utilized to improve memory.
External Memory Aids
The deliberate use of lists, timers, calendars, and similar devices to remind an individual to do something.
Internal Memory Aids
Mnemonic devices or memory aids that rely on plans or strategies to make retrieval easier and more likely.
Keywords
A mnemonic device or memory aid in which a previously learned list of words or rhymes serve as associates or "hooks" for the to-be-remembered items.
Method of Places (loci)
A mnemonic device or memory aid in which a familiar route is selected and the to-be-remembered items are imaged at intervals along the route. At recall, the individual "mentally traverses" the route to retrieve the items.
First Letter Mnemonics
A mnemonic device or memory aid in which the first letter of each word to be learned are combined into a single word.
Prospective Memory
Remembering to do something at some time in the future.
Cognitive Interview
A technique for recalling events that uses principles of cognitive psychology to guide the retrieval process.
Encoding Goal
Recognizing that you want to learn something- use the strategies for promoting learning.
Retrieval Goal
Recognizing that you want to recall something- use the strategies for improving recall.
Debiasing Goal
A conscious attempt to recognize the ways in which memory can be biased and engaging in activities that are designed to minimize the bias such as continuing to search for additional information and reflecting on stereotypes.
Short Term Memory Items According to MILLER
7, plus or minus 2.
Early words > Middle words < Last words (SERIAL POSITION EFFECT)
Adkinson & Shriffirn (1968) again.
Rundus (1971)
Free recall test. Counted rehearsed items. The more rehearsal, the more recall.
Shallice & Warringeton (1970)
Against the modal model, used patients with impaired short term memory.
Tulvinge (1966)
Repeating words does not increase their accessibility.
Nickerson & Adams (1979)
Pennies
Craik & Lockhart (1972)
Retention of information is a direct effect if how info is encoded and processed.
Tulvinge & Craik (1975)
Sentence fit judgments. 3 phases.
Morris, Bransfod, & Flanks (1977)
Rhyming recall.
Peterson & Peterson (1959)
Explored how long info can be stored before it is forgotten without rehearsal.
Mnemonics
Techniques for organizing and elaborating info so it can be more easily remembered.