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55 Cards in this Set

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- Animism
- Consciousness
All moving objects were assumed to have spirits that caused them to move. - Awareness of our thoughts, perceptions, memories and feelings.
Corpus callosum
- Cerebral hemispheres
- A large bundle of nerve fibers that connect corresponding parts of one side of the brain w/ those of the other. (Cutting there of: split-brain operation.) - The largest part of the brain consists of two symmetrical parts which receive sensory information from the opposite sides of the body.
- Generalization
- Psychologists, particular in terms of general laws vs reduction (complex in terms of simpler). The task of physio psy is to explain beh in physio terems, but not simply as reductionists.
Hippocrates vs Aristotle vs Galen
- Unlike Egyptians, Indians, Chinese, and Greeks, Hippocrates concluded the brain was the seat of thought and emotion. Aristotle disagreed, the brain cooled the passions of the heart. Galen dissected animals and disagreed.
Descartes (Early 1600s)
Coined term "reflexes," body as a machine. The first to suggest that a link exists btwn the mind and the brain. Ventricles filled w/ fluid to move mscles. Used a model.
Galvani and Mueller
Frog nerve for muscle contraction due to tissue. Mueller: German, Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: all nerves carry the same basic message (an elec impulse) and we perceive diff nerve messages in diff ways. Biology must be an experimental science.
Flourens (French) and Broca
Removed parts of animal brains and observed beh; Experimental Ablation. Regions of brain controlling heart rate etc. - Autopsy of stroke patient's brain, speech on left side.
Fritsch and Hitzig; Helmholtz
Used Galvani's electric stimulation idea and applied currents to dog's brain. Found that opposite brain side and body parts were related; Primary Motor Cortex region. Helmholtz: color vision theory, studied under Mueller, mechanistic nature of physio, First to attempt to measure spped of conduc through nerves.
Darwin's functionalism
Characteristics of living org perform useful functions (vs purposes).
1) First vertebrates emerged from sea:
2) Reptiles divided into:
350 mill ya (amphibians) 2) Anapsids (turtle ances), diapsids (dino, birds ances), Synapsids (mammal ancestors). One group of synapsids,therapsids, became dominant in Permian per until extenction and cynodont.
Neoteny
- Experimental neuropsychology
Extended youth, slowed process of maturation for more growth - larger brains. 2) diag and treatment of nervous sys diseases.
- After split-brain operation, right hemis can no longer:
- Broca's studies of the effects of strokes used:
- The human brain:
produce speech vs control movements of left hand. - Experimental ablation - Contains circuits modified through experience vs is comparable in weight to other mammals' brains.
- Most professional physio psy work in: - Most direct ances of man: - Belief that the mind is not physical:
- Colleges/univ - primates - dualism
- First vertebrates to evolve: - Belief that the mind is the product of the workings of the nervous sys: - Cynodont:
- Amphibians - monism - direct ancestor of mammals
Portions of chromosomes, the functional unit directing protein synthesis: - Consist of long strands of DNA - ATP:
Genes - Chromosomes - A molecule of prime imporance to cellular energy metabolism; its breakdown liberates energy.
- Node of Ranvier - Area postrema
- Bare portion of axons - A region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak; poisons can be detected there and initiate vomiting.
Oscilloscope - Hyperpolarization
- An instrument capable of displaying a graph of voltage as a function of time on the face of a cathode ray tube. - An increase in the membrane potential of a cell, relative to the normal resting potential.
1) Electrolytes
2) Rate law
1) An aqueous solution of a material that ionizes, namely a soluble base, acid, or salt. 2) The principle that variations in the intensity of a stimulus or other info transmitted in an axon are rep by variations in the rate at which that axon fires.
1) Saltatory conduction
2) Postsynaptic potential
3) Binding site
1) Conduc of action potentials by myelinated axons; appears to jump among nodes of ranvier. 2) Alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron, produced by liberation of neurotransmitter at the synapse (brief depol or hyperpol). 3) The location on a receptor protein to which a ligand (chemical) binds.
1) Dendritic spine 2) Presynaptic membrane 3) Synaptic cleft
1) A small bund on the surface of a dendrite, w/ which a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse. 2) The membrane of a terminal button that lies adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane and through which neurotransmitter is released (vs postsyn opposite button receiving message). 3) The space btwn the presyn and postsyn membrane.
1) Synaptic vesicle 2) Release zone
1) A small, hollow structure found in terminal buttons; contains molecules of a neurotransmitter. 2) A region of the interior of the presyn mem to which synaptic vesicles attach and release their neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
1) Neurotransmitter-dependent ion channel 2) Ionotropic receptor
1) An ion channel that opens when a molecule of a neurotransmitter binds w/ a postsynaptic receptor. 2) A receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site.
1) A receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter; activates an enzyme, and begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site. 2) G protein
1) Metabotropic receptor 2) A protein coupled to a metabotropic receptor; conveys messages to other molecules when a ligand binds w/ and activates a receptor.
- A chemical produced when a G protein activates an enzyme; carries a signal that results in the opening of the ion channel or causes other events. 2) EPSP
1) second messenger. 2) Excitatory postsynaptic potential, an excitatory depol of the postsynaptic mem of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button.
1) IPSP (inhibitory postsyn potential) 2) Reuptake 3) The destruction of a neurotransmitter by an enzyme after its release.
1) An inhibitory hyperpol of the postsyn mem of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button. 2) The reentry of a neurotransmitter just liberated by a terminal button back through its mem, thus terminating postsyn potential. 3) Enzymatic deactivation.
1) AChE 2) The process by which inhibitory and excitatory postsyn potentials summate and control the rate of firing of a neuron.
1) acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine soon after it is liberated by the terminal buttons, thus terminating the postsyn potential. 2) neural integration.
1) Autoreceptor 2) The action of a presyn terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse; reduces the amount of neurotransmitter rel by the postsyn terminal button (vs increasing)
1) A receptor molecule located on a neuron that responds to the neurotransmitter rel by that neuron. 2) Presynaptic inhibition vs facilitation.
1) A naturally secreted substance that acts like a neurotransmitter except that it is not restricted to the synaptic cleft but diffuses through the extracellular fluid. 2) Hormone
1) Neuromodulator 2) A chemical rel by an endocrine gland and that has effects on target cells in other organs.
1) A gland that liberates its secretions into the extracellular fluid around capillaries and hence the bloodstream. 2) Target cell
1) Endocrine gland 2) The type of cell that contains receptor for a particular hormone and is affected by that hormone.
1) Sites on the dendrites/soma that are sensitive to certain neurotransmitters. 2) Cerebral cortex
1) Receptors. 2) The uneven surface of the brain just underneath the skull that controls and integrates sophisticated memory, sensory, and motor functions.
1) Parietal lobe 2) Medulla
1) Receives and integrates sensory info and plays a role in spatial reasoning. 2) Controls bodily functions that sustain life, like heart rate and respiration.
1) The process of recapturing some neurotransmitters from the synapse before they reach the receptors of another neuron. 2) Thalamus
1) Reuptake 2) Receives and integrates sensory info from the sense organs and from higher brain structures.
1) Ventricles 2) Lateralized
1) Four connected chambers in the brain filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid. 2) Each cerebral hemisphere serves a specialized role in brain function; the left hemisphere is involved in language and the right in spatial relations.
1) Pons 2) Cerebellum
1)Regulates stages of sleep. 2) Helps coordinate physical movement.
1) Temporal lobe 2) Frontal lobe
1) Processes sound and smell, regulates emotions, and is involved in learning, memory, and language. 2) Controls a number of complex functions like reasoning, planning, emotion, speech, and movement.
1) The view that mind and body are separable. 2) Reticular activating system
1) Dualism 2) Regulates sleep and waking.
1) A brain grouping that evolved last and is the location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processes. 2) The two major structures of the forebrain and the site of most sensory, emot, and cog processes.
1) Forebrain. 2) Cerebral hemispheres.
1) A brain grouping which controls some motor activities, esp fighting and sex, and includes part of the reticular activating sys. 2) Occipital Lobe
1) Midbrain. 2) Receives and interpretes visual info
1) Hypothalamus 2) Structures that contain neurotransmitters.
1) Controls basic biol urges such as eating, drinking, and sex. 2) Ventricles.
1) Alzheimer's 2) The study of changes in the functioning of the body that result from psy experiences.
1) A form of dementia characterized by tangles of neurons in the brain visible at autopsy. 2) Psychophysiology
1) Alternate forms of a genetic trait. 2) Probands 3) Attributions
1) Alleles 2) Index cases; peopele who have a disorder and then their relatives are examined to see if they also have the disorder. 3) Beliefs about cause and effect relationships.
1) Relationships btwn diff members of the same species 2) The essential traits that describe human behavior. 3) Characteristic styles of relating to the world that are very stable.
1) Affiliation. 2) Personality. 3) Temperament.
1) Attempted to balance relig teachings w/ emerging sci reasoning by proposing dualism. 2) John B. Watson
1) Descartes 2) Founded behaviorism and applied learning theory to the study of abnormal beh.
1) Conducted studies on operant conditioning. 2) By the 1900s, four diff paradigms proposed to explain abnormal beh.
1) B.F. Skinner 2) biol, psychodyn, cog beh, humanistic.
1)Microtubules are slender tubes that:
2)What role does the inhibitory interneuron play in preventing a withdrawal reflex that would make you drop a hot casserole on the floor?
Transport substances w/in the cell. 2) It inhibits a motor neuron, not by signaling the neural circuits of the consequences.
1) If the membrane of an axon receives a sufficiently large depolarization, the resulting rapid reversal of charge is called an:
Action potential. (The membrane potential is the result of diffision and electrostatic pressure, not hyper/depolarization.)
1) Sodium-Potassium transporters keep the intracellular concentration of:
1) Na+ low [Action potentials occur only at the nodes of Ranvier; The message under the myelin segment is conducted passively; saltatory conduction is more energy efficient]
1) Synaptic vesicles are produced in the... 2) Metabotropic receptors open ion channels...
1) Soma and transported to the terminals. 2) Indirectly and involve G proteins.
1) The postsynaptic density: 2) Postsynaptic receptors bind w/ molecules of neurotransmitter and:
1) Consists of specialized protein molecules that detect the presence of neurotransmitters. 2) Open neurotransmitter-dependent ion channels.
1) During an EPSP:
2) During an IPSP:
1) Na+ enters cell. 2) K+ leaves cell.
1) At most synapses, postsynaptic potentials are terminated by: 2) A neuron's own neurotransmitter, detected by its autoreceptors:
1) Reuptake 2) may inhibit the synthesis of that neurotransmitter.
1) Axoaxonic synapses: 2) Hormones...
1) regulate neurotransmitter release. 2) Affect only those cells w/ receptors for them (Not: released by terminals of neurons)
1) Increase in the membrane potential of a cell:
2) Direction along an axon from the soma to terminals:
1) hyperpolarization 2) anterograde
1) Substance that insulates most axons from one another: 2) Glial cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS 3) Molecule that controls a chemical reaction
1) myelin 2) astrocyte 3) enzyme
1) Substance that acts like neurotransmitter but diffuses through extracellular fluid. 2) Organelle that extracts energy from nutrients. 3) Type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths.
1) neuromodulator 2) mitochondria 3) oligodendrocyte