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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cellular Mechanisms of Learning
The process by which experiences change our nervous system and hence our behavior
Stimulus-response learning
Learning to automatically make a particular response in the presence of a particular stimulus
Includes classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (Skinnerian/Behaviorist) conditioning
Classical Conditioning
The process by which a stimulus that initially produces no particular response (the conditioned stimulus or CS) is followed several times by a stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus or US) that produces a response (the unconditioned response), which results in the conditioned stimulus leading directly to the response (a conditioned response).
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov—Russian Physiologist
Dog salivating.
John Watson—American Psychologist
“Little Albert”
Cellular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning
UC (food) Neuron in ss sys - synapse P (strong) and CS (tone) neuron in auditory sys - synapse (weak) --salivation,
Strengthening Synapses
Donald O. Hebb (Canadian Psychologist)
In 1949 hypothesized that coordinated activity of a presynaptic terminal and a postsynaptic neuron strengthens the synaptic connections between them
Hebbian hypothesis: “Neurons that fire together wire together”
Long-term potentiation
A long-term increase in neuronal excitability in response to a particular input
The Hippocampus
C-shaped; deep in cortex in rat -> downward/ventral in humans b/c enlarged frontal lobe. Input through perforant path: synapses on dendrites of granula cells w/in Dentate Gyrus (exit). Granule cell: send axons to CA3 pyramidal cells - send axons to CA1. CA 1 Py. cells send projections out of CA1.
The Hippocampus??
1) EPSP when schaffer collaterals are stimulated. 2) Strong depol pulses paired w/ EPSPs (stimulus stimulates schaffer collaterals) 3) Stimulus of same strength (weak stim w/ strong post syn stim: strong long term inc: LTP)
Important Principles of LTP
Specificity—only those synapses that are correlated with post-synaptic activity should be strengthened
Associativity—those synapses that fire coincidentally with post-synaptic activation should be strengthened