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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
telencephalon
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system (forebrain)
diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus (forebrain)
mesencephalon
tectum, tegmentum
metencephalon
cerebellum, pons
myencephalon
medulla oblongata (hindbrain)
thigmotaxic
tending to stay near walls (animal behavior)
Detectable range of light
380-760 nm
lateral inhibition
inhibitory connection of photoreceptors with adjacent neurons
recognition of harmony
inferior frontal cortex
underlying beat
right auditory cortex
rhythms on top of beat
left auditory cortex
Division of somatosenses (3)
the exteroceptive system senses external stimuli applied to
the skin (e.g. touch)
- the proprioceptive system monitors information about the
position of the body and its posture (e.g. kinesthesia)
- the interoceptive system provides information about
conditions within the body (e.g. blood pressure)
Sleep spindle
happens 2-5 times/ minute stages 1-4
Arousal: ACh
dorsal pons, basal forebrain, medial septum
Arousal: NE
Locus coreolus, correlated w/ performance during arousal
Arousal: hypocretin
lateral hypothalamus, released during waking and sleep
Arousal: histamine
tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN), projects to release ACh
Arousal: 5-HT
Raphe nuclei, facilitates movement, also present in REM sleep
Ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA)
projects to TMN, Raphe nuclei and LC w/ GABA, active during sleep, lesion causes insomnia
Flip-flop
Arousal areas and VLPA are mutually inhibitory, LH neurons creating hypocretin influence arousal areas, thus no hypocretin, no arousal
REM sleep: ACh
peribrachial area: pedunculopontine nucleus (PPT)
and the laterodorsal tegmental
nucleus (LDT).
REM On/Off
Sublaterodorsal nucleus
(SLD) contains REM-ON
neurons.
! Ventrolateral
periaqueductal gray
matter
(vlPAG) contains
REM-OFF cells.
! Stimulating REM-ON
region elicits REM sleep.
Inhibition disrupts it.
suprachiastmatic nucleus (SCN)
biological clock space in rats
vanderburgh effect
females exposed to male urine will gothrough puberty faster
whitten effect
synchronized estrous cycles
bruce effect
fetus will abort if new male urine smelled
vomeronasal organ
projects to olfactory bulb, detects pheromones in rats, projects to medial nucleus of amygdala
Sexual orientation of brain
Superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and anterior commissure
Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis
Gender identity, large in males, small in women, trannies
James-Lange Theory
Fear-producing stimulus caused physiological reactions, emotion stems from these reactions
Papez Circuit
Hypothalamus > anterior thalamus > cingulate cortex = subjective emotional experience (upstream)
Cingulate cortex > hippocampus > hypothalamus = expression (downstream)
Kliver-Bucy syndrome
amygdala lesions lead to:
- reduced fear
- hypersexuality
- hyperorality
- hyperaggression
- hypermetamorphosis
Central Nucleus of Amygdala
expression of emotions related to aversive stimuli, projects to many different areas to control responses
Neural correlates of aggression
Periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits predatory and defensive behavior in cats, projects to hypothalamus and amygdala
Serotonin and aggression
5-H1AA (metabolite) measured, low levels took more risks, all died by two years.
Low levels associated w/ assault and arson in humans, long and short alleles
Superior Temporal Sulcus
increase firing rate when determining gaze direction
speech activation
precentral gyrus of the insular cortex