Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alcohol common names and source
Alcohol, made by frementation. sugar is dissolved in water, and the yeasts eat the sugar, which make alcohol. distillation can also occur, which is after the fermentation, when the mixture is heated the vapor that is given off is a higher alcohol content and after the vapor turns back into liquid you have alcohol.
Alcohol routes of self-administration
Alcohol is administered orally, and absorption takes place in the digestive tract.
Alcohol Neurophysiology
Acute doses of alcohol at concentrations achieved by normal drinking depress the functioning of the ion channel controlled by glutamate at a receptor site called the NMDA receptor. The NMDA receptor site is in the ion channel itself, and alcohol molecules have the effect of blocking the ion channel. alcohol also disrupts second messengers and is known to alter the functioning of monoamine oxidase. it has also been shown to alter the responsiveness of the endogenous opiate system.
Alcohol effects on behavior and performance
decreases in peripheral vision, decreases to sensitivity to taste and smell, decreases in pain sensitivity, reaction time slows by 10% deficits are seen i hand-eye coridination, the more complex the task, the greater the impairment seen. blackouts and greyouts can occur too.
Alcohol tolerance
chronic tolerance appears to develop rapidly. maximum tolerance develops in a few weeks and reaches the point where the drinker must drink 30-50% more to overcome it. tolerance disappears after 2 or 3 weeks but develops again more quickly.
Alcohol Withdrawal
2 stages: (a) early minor syndrome - agitation, tremors, muscle cramps, vomiting, nausea, sweating, vivid dreaming, irregular heartbeats. (2days)(b) late major syndrome - increased agitation, disorientation, confusion, and hallucinations. seizures may also occur. (7-10days)
Alcohol Health risks and benefits
risks - Alcohol poisoning 300-400mg/100ml; hangover; - harmful effects of chronic consumption - damage the liver and contract alcohol hepatitis; korsakoff's psychosis(loss of memory, inability to remember new stuff, disorientation, confusion); cancer of the mouth, throat and liver; heart disease - alcoholic cardiomyopathy; ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, pneumonia, abnormalities in the blood and malnutrition.
benefits - consumption by elders improved sleep, boosted morale, increased participation in activities, relieved depression, and had no detectable ill effects.
tranquilizers and sedative hypnotics common names and source.
tranquilizer is applied to drugs that are used therapeutically to treat agitation and anxity. the term sedative-hypnotic refers to drugs that are used to aid sleep. the most common in use today is the benzodiazepines.
Tranquilizers etc. routes of administration
if a repid effect is needed, an i.v. injection would be indicated, but if a long-term effect is wanted than the oral route is taken.
Tranquilizers etc. neurophysiology
their effects are mediated primarily by their ability to modify the effects of GABA. GABA has 2 receptor sites - A, and B. the barbiturates and the benzodiapines each have their own receptor sites on the GABA recepor-chloride ionophore complex. when barbiturates and benzodiapines activate their receptors there is an increase in the ability of GABA occupying A receptor to open the chloride ionophore.
Tranquilizers etc. effects on behavior and performance
the benzodiazepines can have severe effects on memory, they cause anterograde amnesia. attention and psychomotor effects may start as soon as one hour after oral administration for diazepam. benzodiazepines can actually improve performance in some people in situations where anxiety might be expected to interfere with performance.
Tranquilizers etc. tolerance
toldrance can develop during a single administration. with repeated administration, benzodiazepines become less and less effective in their ability to modulate the effects of GABA. tolerance also develops slowly to the anticonvulsant effects of the benzodiazepines as well as to the drowsiness.
tranquilizers etc. withdrawal
if doses are kept low, the only withdrawal symptom may be REM rebound and may be reflected in mild sleep dusturbances, but at higher doses, withdrawal symptoms can be medially serious. the symptoms can include tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, delirium, and seizures.
Tranquilizers etc. health benefits and risks
overdose, and reproduction - chance of Fetal Benzodiazepine syndrome - baby's face malformed and expressionless and that there is poor muscle tone, delayed hand-eye coordination, tremors, delayed mental development and learning disabilities.
Inhaled substances common names and sources
inhaled substances, or abused inhalants, or solvents, or just inhalants. solvents are called volatile solvents. they are commonly available in glues, spray paints, cleaning fluid, correction fluid, hair spray and nailpolish. fules include butane, propane and isopropane. propellants are chlorofluorocarbons or freyons or CFCs and are commonly used in pressurize aerosol cans. nitrous oxide is used in whipped ceam cans. anesthetics - the term ether refers to a variety of chemicals. ether was originally made by distilling ethyl alcohol and sulfuric acit together.
inhaled substances routes of administration
always inhaled, but some, like ether, are sometimes swallowed before they vaporize. usual method is to either fill a bag or soak a cloth with the substance and hold over the face. inhalsing through the nose s called sniffing and inhaling through the mouth and nose is called huffing.
inhaled substances neurophysiology
enhancement of the inhibitory transmitter GABA; enhancement of the effects of glycine, another inhibitory transmitter; and the attenuation of the NMDA receptor of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. the enhancement of the effectiveness of GABA is due to an increase in the affinity of the GABAA receptor for the GABA molecule, and a similar mechanism is probably responsible for the enhancement of glyene functioning.