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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions.
Formal concept-
A mental category that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it.
Natural concept-
A mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experience.
The most typical instance of a particular concept.
Problem Solving-
Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
Trial and Error-
A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
A problem-solving stategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution.
Aspects of intelligence:
Use of mental images and concepts, problem solving and decision making, and the use of language.
David Wechsler's definition of intelligence-
The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
-To Wechsler, intelligence is reflected in effective, rational, and goal-directed behavior.
Thermans verion of Binet's test:
-Called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
-Uses a single number score, called the Intelligence Quotient (IQ).
-IQ is derived by dividing the individual's mental age by the chronological age and multiplying the result by 100.
-Average IQ is 100, sort of meaning mental age is the same as the chronological age.
-This led to popular phrase "IQ test."
What are 2 broad scales, other than the WAIS, for intelligence?
Achievement tests and aptitude tests.
Achievement test-
A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area.
Aptitude test-
A test designed to assess a person's capacity to benefit from education or training.
What is the idea between high IQ and sucess?
Although intelligence is necessary for success in any field, the kind of intelligence that is reflected by high scores on traditional IQ tests is no guarantee of vocational success or professional eminence.
(Personality Perspectives)
Psychoanalytic perspective-
Emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.
(Personality Perspectives)
Humanistic perspective-
Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person's unique potential.
(Personality Perspectives)
Social Cognitive perspective-
Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.
(Personality Perspectives)
Trait perspective
Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences amoung individuals.
What is involved in Freuds technique of free association?
-Patients asked to continually relate anything which comes into their minds, regardless of how superficially unimportant or potentially embarrassing the memory threatens to be.
-Technique assumes that all memories are arranged ina single associative network, and that sooner or later the subject will stumble across the crucial memory.
Basic goal of ID:
-Immediate satisfaction.
4 Basic personality types according to Eysenck's:
What are the Big 5?
-Openness to Experience
What are two basic types of personality tests?
Projective tests and self-report inventories.
What is the most widely used self report inventory?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
(Matching people with Personality Perspectives)
Freud, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler.
(Matching people with Personality Perspectives)
Maslow, Rogers
(Matching people with Personality Perspectives)
Social Cognitive-
(Matching people with Personality Perspectives)
Cattell, Eysenck,