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### 20 Cards in this Set

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 Problem Solving active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable Problems of Inducing Structure problems requiring one to discover relations amoung numbers, words, symbols or ideas eg.analogy & seriese completion problems Problems of Arrangement problems requiring one to arrange parts of a problem in a way that satisfies some criterion. eg. string & anagrams Insight a sudden discovery of a correct solution following incorrect attempts usually based on trial & error Greeno's 3 classes of problems Problems of; inducing structure, arrangement, transformation Problems of Transformation one must carry out a sequence of transformations to reach a goal eg. hobbits & orcs & water jar List 4 barriers to effective problem solving Irrelevent information, functional fixedness, mental set, unnecessary constraints Irrelevent information information given in a problem which is not needed to solve it Functional Fixedness a tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use Mental Set persisting on using problem solving stratagies that have worked in the past Unnecessay constraints the assumption that there are restrictions or constraints in place which have not been specified or do not exist problem space the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by problem solver Trial & Error trying possible solutions & disgarding those in error until one works Algorithm a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in finding a solution to a problem Heuristic a guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used to solve problems or make decisions List 4 types of Heuristics used in problem solving forming subgoals, working backwards, searching for analogies, changing representation of a problem 4 stages of problem solving 1 -initial attempt to solve problem, 2 incubation, 3 illumination, 4 verification incubation a stage of problem solving where the problem is put aside for some time illumination a stage of problem solving where sudden insight into problem occurs verification a stage of problem solving where the solution is checked to ensure it is correct