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20 Cards in this Set

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Problem Solving
active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
Problems of Inducing Structure
problems requiring one to discover relations amoung numbers, words, symbols or ideas eg.analogy & seriese completion problems
Problems of Arrangement
problems requiring one to arrange parts of a problem in a way that satisfies some criterion. eg. string & anagrams
Insight
a sudden discovery of a correct solution following incorrect attempts usually based on trial & error
Greeno's 3 classes of problems
Problems of; inducing structure, arrangement, transformation
Problems of Transformation
one must carry out a sequence of transformations to reach a goal eg. hobbits & orcs & water jar
List 4 barriers to effective problem solving
Irrelevent information, functional fixedness, mental set, unnecessary constraints
Irrelevent information
information given in a problem which is not needed to solve it
Functional Fixedness
a tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
Mental Set
persisting on using problem solving stratagies that have worked in the past
Unnecessay constraints
the assumption that there are restrictions or constraints in place which have not been specified or do not exist
problem space
the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by problem solver
Trial & Error
trying possible solutions & disgarding those in error until one works
Algorithm
a methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in finding a solution to a problem
Heuristic
a guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used to solve problems or make decisions
List 4 types of Heuristics used in problem solving
forming subgoals, working backwards, searching for analogies, changing representation of a problem
4 stages of problem solving
1 -initial attempt to solve problem, 2 incubation, 3 illumination, 4 verification
incubation
a stage of problem solving where the problem is put aside for some time
illumination
a stage of problem solving where sudden insight into problem occurs
verification
a stage of problem solving where the solution is checked to ensure it is correct