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196 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
functional analysis of behavior
misbehaving child's behavior is reinforced by the attention
biological
physical response
evolutionary
behavior, result of revolution
behavioralist
learning forms behavior, reward/punishment
cognitive
mental
psychodynamic
unconscious conflict, Freud
humanistic (phenomenological)
everyone has their own approach and it's all correct
eclectic
mixture
naturalistic observation
watching in a natural setting... (s) natural setting, (w) bias, self-awareness
case studies
intensive explanation of one person or situation... (s) very detailed, (w) not a representative picture
survey
(s) quick and inexpensive, (w) error prone, response bias
correlation studies
relationship between research variables... (s) hypotheses, predictions can be tested, (w) doesn't show causation
experiment
(s) cause & effect and dependent & independent variables, (w) confounding variables
inferential statistics
"statistically significant"
t-test...
ANOVA
2 groups...
more than 2 tests
Sir Francis Galton
"nature or nurture"
new research methods
1st 2 weeks
germination stage
2nd 2 weeks to the 2nd month
embryonic stage
2nd month on
fetal stage
prenatal risks: placenta
filters things in the blood
prenatal risk: teratogens
alcohol, drugs, etc.
prenatal development: critical period
embryonic stage where developing occurs
Piaget's stages: sensorimotor
birth - 2 years
development: object permanence, schemas-seen and heard
Piaget's stages: preoperational
2 - 7 years
symbols, intuitive guess, animism, egocentrism, no conservation
Piaget's stages: concrete operational thought
7 years thru adolescence
have conservation, simple logic, operations, real objects, can reason what is and not what will/could be
think logically about abstract ideas, questions social institution, thinks hypothetically, uses symbols and proposition
Piaget's stages: Formal operational thinking
very fast developing, social referencing
mother-child bond
hungry and sleepy predictably, react to new situations cheerfully, seldom fuss
temperment patterns: easy
irregular, irritable
tempermant patterns: difficult
react warily to new situations but eventually come round
temperment patterns: slow-to-warm up
Who says attachment is based on feeding and emotion?
Harry Harlow
greet mothers when they return, but reject efforts and contacts
ambivalent
aviod mother when they return
avoidant
behavior is inconsistent, disturbed, and disturbing, or they may reach out for the mothers while looking away from them
disorganized
limitations on parenting styles
based on correlational evidence, how children percieve discipline
parenting styles: authoritarian
strict, by-the-book
parenting styles: permissive
liberal
parenting styles: authoritative
justifications, mixture of permissive and authoritarian styles
What influences gender roles?
social factors, biological factors, cognitive factors (gender schemas), nature vs. nurture
moral judgments based on selfish tendencies
Kohlberg's stages: preconventional
following rules
Kohlberg's stages: conventional
presonal standards or universal principles, moral
Kohlberg's stages: postconventional
early adulthood
20 - 39 years old
growth continues
middle adulthood
40 - 65 years old
physical changes slowly emerge: loss of sensory sharpness, menopause, andropause
late adulthood
65 years --->
all physical changes are developed
nun studies
wrote autobiographies: various levels of linguistic complexity, grammar skills and index of higher order skills
puberty
12 girls, 14 boys
physical, social, cognitive changes (identity crises)
1st year
infant learns their needs will be met by the world (mothers)... or to mistrust it (them)
Erickson's stages: trust vs. mistrust
2nd year
children learn to exercise will, make choices, control themselves... or doubt their abilities
Erickson's stages: autonomy vs. shame & doubt
3rd - 5th year
children learn to initiate activities, enjoy accomplishments, acquire direction & purpose... or feel guilty for attempts at independence
Erickson's stages: initiative vs. guilty
6th year thru puberty
develop a sense of industry and curiosity, eager to learn... or feel inferior and lose interest in the tasks before them
Erickson's stages: industry vs. inferiority
adolescence
see themselves as unique and integrated persons with an ideology... or become confused about what they want from life
prone to depression
Erickson's stages: identity vs. role confusion
early adulthood
are able to commit themselves to another person... or feel there is no one in the world other than oneself
Erickson's stages: itimacy vs. isolation
middle age
willing to have and care for children, devote themselves to work and the commmon good... or become self-centered and inactive
Erickson's stages: generativity vs. stagnation
old age
period of reflection,assuring themselves that their lives are meaningful and ready to face death with dignity and acceptance... or feel unaccomplished and led ill-spent lives
Erickson's stages: integrity vs. despair
glial cells
"glue" support for neurons
dendrites
detects & carries signals to cell body
axon
carries signals away from the cell body
cell body
contains all organelles and DNA for the cell, site of axon nillick: initiates action potential
synapse
gap btwn neurons, gives chemical signals--neurotransmitters
neurotransmitter
chemical released by a cell that binds to receptors on another cell, chemical message
receptor
proteins on the cell membrane that recueve chemical signals
IPSP
inhibitory post-synaptic potential, "don't send the message"
EPSP
excitatory post-synaptic potential, "send it! send it! send it!"
absolute refractory period
time when cell cannot fire an action potential again for any reason
What are the functions of the nervous system?
input, output, processing
brain, spinal cord (responsible for reflexes)
central nervous system
somatic
things one is consiously aware of: feeling, touch
autonomic
-sympathetic
-parasympathetic
happens on its own
-fight or flight
-relaxation
in the spine: afferent
approaching, sensory
in the spine: efferent
exiting, motor
picks up electrical impulses in the brain, info in real time
EEG (electroencephalogram)
tags some metabolic molecules (glucose, o2) with a radioactice isotope, measures decay to see where molecule was uptaken...
limitations: expensive, only a few per year can be done--radioactive
PET (positron emission topography)
structural image of the brain, put energy into the head and "listens" to the image
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
measures blood flow in the brain, response is slow but well localized
fMRI (functional MRI)
oldest part of the brain, contains the medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, and locus coeruleus, causes light headedness when one stands up too quickly
hindbrain
contains important nuclei, the substantia nigra, and the striatum
midbrain
contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, the superchaismatic nuclei, lymbic system, hippocampus, andamygdala
forebrain
medulla
vital functions, causes lightheadedness
reticular formation
activates other structures in the brain
cerebellum
"little bell" balance and fine movement (writing, typing)
locus coeruleus
"blue spot" directs attention
subtantia nigra
"black substance" responsible for parkinsons and smooth movement
striatum
"striped" responsible for smooth movement
thalamus
relays pain signals from the CNS "switch board operator"
hypothalamus
4 fs! feeding, fleeing, fighting, "mating"
superchaismatic nuclei
clock
lymbic system
integrates emotions and memory
amygdala
"almond" responsible for emotions
hippocampus
"seahorse" responsible for memories
responsible for speech production, "broken speech" *____ Aphasia: hard to speak, not grammatical*
Broca's Area
responsible for comprehension of speech, *____ Aphasia: able to speak, garbled*
Wernicke's Area
corpus callosum
allows information to cross the hemispheres
logical, language abilities
left brain
artistic, spatial, musical abilities
right brain
neurotransmitters: movement, memory
acetylcholine
neurotransmitters: sleep, mood, learning
norepinephrine
neurotransmitters: mood, appetite, aggression
serotonin
neurotransmitters: movement, reward, mood
dopamine
neurotransmitters: movement
GABA
neurotransmitters: memory
glutamate
peptide: modulates pain
endorphin
gas: memory
nitric oxide
messages from the senses
sensation
making sensation into meaningful experiences
perception
responsiveness to a stimulus decreases over time
adaption
physical neuronal stimulation
transduction
temporal code
pattern/timing represent different things
spatial coding
codes to the location of neurons firing and those that aren't
doctrine of a specific nerve energy
whatever the sense is supposed to interpret, it will
loudness, pitch, and timber
psychological attributes of sound
frequency, amplitude, and wavelength
physical attributes of sound
place theory
particular place responds to a sound
frequency-matching theory, or volley theory
neuronal firing corresponds to frequency, one fire per wave... firing at a combined frequency too high for any one to do alone
photoreceptors
transduct light into a neuronal energy
(3 pigments) color
cones
(1 pigment) light
rods
lateral inhibition
helps detect edges
motion perception: looming
rapid expansion of the size of an image so that it fills the retina
strobostropic motion
percieving motion when a series of still images appear in rapid succession
sensory information dominates processing
bottom-up procssing
experiences guide information that is processed, constructivist theory
top-down processing
dualism
mind and body are separate, Rene Descartes
materialism
mind and body are one
theater view
consciousness is a stage on which awareness plays before the mind
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model
many different parts occurring at the same time
conscious level
what is going on now
preconscious level
recalling something that was formerly consciousness
nonconscious level
things that occur w/out conscious knowledge, cannot be brought to the conscious level
unconscious level
something that occurred in the past that cannot be remembered but effects how one acts
blindsight
damage to primary visual cortex, results in blindness but can percieve some things
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize faces
anterograde amnesia
no new memories can be made however learning can occur through repeated practice, damage to the hippocampus
sleep stages 1 and 2, before actual sleep occurs
drifting
sleep stages 3 and 4, increasingly slower brain waves
slow-wave sleep
sleep stages 5 and 6, muscles become paralyzed, dreaming occurs
REM (rapid eye movement)
inability to fall asleep
insomnia
inability to control sleep
narcolepsy
air passage blocked while sleeping
sleep apnea
baby dies while sleeping, suffocation
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
occur during REM sleep, bad dreams
nightmares
horribly graphic dreams
night terrors
doing strange and random things while sleeping
REM sleep disorder
functions of sleep
rest, restore neurotransmitter sensitivity, neuronal development, consolidation
dreams are fulfilled during sleep
wish-fulfillment theory
random information in brain firing, does not make sense
activation-synthesis theory
solving an issue in your dream
problem-solving theory
"you will..." eat less, not fear this, etc.
post-hypnotic suggestion
acting like a child, change one's thoughts
age regression
applications of hypnosis
remove: pain, bad habits, post surgery recovery, improve memory, therapy
jumpy person, some percieved threat
sensitization
repeat exposure leads to less a response
habituation
agonists
mimics effects of drugs
antagonists
blocks effects of drugs
factors affecting the learning of a CR
timing, predictability, signal strength, attention to stimulus
second order conditioning
responding to a stimulus that has been associated with what was desired and caused a response in the first place
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned response (UCR)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
conditioned response (CR)
a response to the conditioning ends
extinction
learning what was previously learned again, and faster
reconditioning
stimulus generalization
generalizing a fear to the CS
stimulus discrimination
opposite of generalization
law of effect
less likely to repeat a behavior when one is punished, more likely to repeat a behavior when one is rewarded
positve reinforcement
something positive is offered for positive
negative reinforcement
something negative is removed for a positive response
escape conditioning
*faking sick at a really bad date
avoidance conditioning
*avoid seeing the person/being in a undesireable situation
shaping
changing a person's behavior through reinforcement
primary reinforcement
has real value, *dog treat
secondary reinforcement
gained value through classical conditioning, expands power of operant conditioning, *verbal praise to a dog
assimilation
same concept (schemas) for something new, *zebra and horse are the same because they look alike
accomadation
different concept for something new, new schemas, *zebra is a zebra and not a horse even though they look alike
synthesia
multiple sensory output... smelling and seeing things together
absolute thresholds
at least 50%
obson
cones
redobson
rods
computational theory
sensory information in, adds up.. bottom up
ecological theory
doesn't matter how it is veiwed
Weber's Law
doubling the weight is the only way that one will psychologically be aware of a change
accomodation, visually
eye muscles bend
interposition
someone/something in the visual field in front of the object/person trying to be seen
depressants
reduce activity in the central nervous system
alcohol
enhances effects of endorphins (pain)... effects dopamine levels (pleasure & reward)
barbiturates
downers, sleeping pills... causes relaxation, loss of muscle coordination, etc.
GHB
increased sex drive, elation, relaxation
stimulants
speed up nervous system activity
amphetamines
uppers, speed, increase release/decrease removal of norepinephrine and dopamine
cocaine
increase norepenephrine, dopamine... decreases GABA.. stimulates self confidence, well-being, optimism... brings nausea, insomnia, paranoia, depressive crashes, siezures, sex dysfunction
caffeine
reduces drowsiness, enhances cognitive performance,... tremors and axiety
nicotene
stimulates ANS (autonomic) enhances acteylcholine, increases glutamate.. improved memory and attention
MDMA
ecstasy.. energy, sex drive, sense of well-being... visual halucinations, hyperactivity, lockjaw
opiates
induce sleep, relieve pain
hallucinogens
alter aspects of emotion, perception, thought
LSD
unclear, unpredictable effects... short term memory loss, nightmares, paranoia, panic attacks, flashbacks
ketamine ("special K")
eases animal pains, out of body, near death experiences, memory, amnesia
marijuana
creates restlessness, hilarity, dreamlike states, food cravings