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22 Cards in this Set

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What are functions of having a self concept?
Use experiences to understand how to interact.

Lets you fulfill needs while avoiding disapproval and anxiety.
How can self-theories be evaluated?
Theories can be evaluated based on the Degree to which they are:

-extensive
-parsimonious
-empirically valid
-testable
-internally consistent
-useful
-self-correcting
Why does it mean for a theory to be extensive?
An individual with an extensive self theory will have concepts available to cope with a wide variety of situations.

He will be aware of more facets of his feelings, ability, and personality than someone with a narrow self theory.

Things do not appear as simple black and white.
Why does it mean for a theory to be expansive?
An expansive theory remains valid even after new discoveries are made. The opposite is a poor theory which is restrictive.
Why do some individuals have a restricted self-theory
-child or one with mental problem

-one that is highly threatened or stressed.

-one that learned to react to threats, may react similar even if threat is no longer present.

-one that has lack of diversified experiences because a self theory is derived from experiences.
Distinguish between the material self, social self, and spiritual self.
Material - body, family, possessions.

Social - views others hold of individual.

Spiritual - individual's emotions and desires.
In what contexts has Self been defined?
Mead - self concept arises from being concerned about how others react to you

A self for each social role because we estimate how to react based on how others react to us.

an individual perceives himself as others perceive him.

Combs - parts of an individual that one considers as stable characteristics, are you the same person you were one year ago?

Combination of body self, spiritual self, and social self.

Aspects of the self can evoke well being or dissatisfaction.
What is a parsimonious theory?
A theory that has broad and integrative postulates as opposed to one that needs an explanation for every new postulate.
How can a person's cognitive state by interpreted from his emotions?
x
Why is the self concept useful?
It provides a perspective from which an individual's behavior can be understood.
What was William James view about the self in 1910?
All aspects of the self are capable of evoking feelings of heightened self esteem and well being or low self esteem and dissatisfaction.
What are characteristics of self?
-the self is a dynamic organization that changes with experience by assimilating more information.

-the self is integrative, over integrated.

-the self develops out of experience, especially social interaction with others
What happens when an individual loses his self concept?
He experiences anxiety and defends himself against threat.
What is the difference between someone with a parsimonious self theory and one without it?
Parsimonious S.T. - stability + basic values

Non - lack stability and behavior would be determined by situation he's in.
What is internal consistency?
When a theory does not contradict its own postulates
What characteristics must a self theory have in order to be considered good or useful?
-it must maintain the pleasure/pain balance.

-it must maintain self-esteem.

-it must assimilate data of experience.
What are characteristics of the experiential cognitive system?
-Outside awareness.

-Contains previous experiences and their consequences.

-works from experience till encounters new information repeatedly.

-Pattern detecting.

-Global - general sense of good and bad, approach or avoid.

-Reacts quick.
What is the Rational Cognitive System?
-We are aware of it.

-Slow and precise.

-Takes new information into account immediately.
Which cognitive system houses self-theory?
Self theory is in the experiential system, outside of direct awareness. But we can infer patterns in our own behavior and infer what we believe.

Therefore, we can become indirectly aware of some of our self theory postulates.
How can a belief in the experiential system be changed?
-Experience in world

-Experience with therapist

-Experience with guided imagery
According to Seymour Epstein, what is self theory?
The set of beliefs you have about yourself and your relation to the world.
According to Epstein, what are the key functions of a good self theory?
-make sense of incoming information.

-maintain pleasure-pain balance

-maintain self-esteem

-maintain relationships