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34 Cards in this Set

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What does Jung's collective unconscious include?
Jung said that this was the inherited experience of the human species.
Examples
-easy recognition of certain symbols in dreams and mythology.

-deja vue
-similarities in near death experiences
What are the 3 parts of Jung's psyche
a. Ego - conscious mind

b. Personal Unconscious - memories that are easily brought to mind and those that are suppressed, does not include Freud's drives. Anything that is not presently conscious but can be.

c. Collective Unconscious - inherited experiences of human species, easy recognition of certain symbols such as those in mythology, dreams, religion, deja vue, similarities in near death experiences
What did Jung site as evidence for existence of the collective unconscious?
easy recognition of certain symbols in religion, dreams, and mythology.

deja vue

similarities in near death experiences
What is an archetype?

Give examples
Idea organizer used by the collective unconscious. e.g. mother, father, child, wise man, animal, joker

Unlearned tendency to experience things a certain way.

Organizing principle on the things we see or do.
What did Jung mean by persona?
Your public image, the mask you put on before showing yourself to the outside world.

The good impression we present while fulfilling roles in society.
What are anima and animus?
Anima - Female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men.
feminine soul, serves as main method of communication with the deeper aspects of the unconscious. May appear as young girl, earth mother.

Animus - Male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. May appear as wise old man, logical, rational.
Give examples of how archetypes are used in Star Wars.
Luke Skywalker - hero
Princess Leia - innocent maiden (anima)
Obi Wan Kanobi - wise old man (animus)
Darth Vader - dark side
What creates the powers of the psyche according to Jung?

How did Jung's view differ from Freud's view?
Every wish suggests its opposite. Tension between opposites creates power that motivates mental life. This conflicted with Freud's idea that motivation was sexual. This was a significant break between Freud and Jung.
What is a complex and how does it develop according to Jung?
Opposites have equal energy. If you recognize and acknowlege the negative side, you can have energy to put toward good. Therapy involves getting you in touch with the opposites that you don't recognize.

If you don't recognize an impulse, you develop a pattern of ideas around it. These are called complexes and they show up as archetypes in dreams and in the way you see other people.
What is Jung's principle of entropy?
Over time, the tension between opposites diminishes and they become less distinctly opposed to one another. In adulthood, this is reflected in greater personal integration.

THE KEY is that personality development continues throughout life. JUNG is remembered for this.
What is the difference between Frued's and Jung's unconscious?
Freud's UC was filled with cravings, drives, desires, and frightening experiences of the individual while Jung's UC was collective experiences of human species.
According to Jung, the inherited species of humans, such as those responsible for common dream imagery, deja vue, and near death experiences are part of the ___________________
collective unconscious
According to Jung, what is the source of Mental Energy?
Every wish suggests its opposite. Everything you want implies something you did not want. The tension between opposites is the source of mental energy.

The individual must define what is opposite because opposites are not the same for all.
According to Jung, what is the Principle of Equivalence?
Opposites have Equal energy.

If you acknowlege the opposite, its energy comes to you to use creatively.

Accept what you aren't doing to get greater energy.
What was important in therapy according to Jung?
For Jung, an important part of therapy was to become aware of the opposites that you are not doing.
How does a complex form according to Jung?
If you are not aware of the impulses that are opposite to the ones you follow, the tension can cause preoccupation and lead to a complex. A knot of worry caused by not examining the opposite can show up in dreams or can show up in the way you see other people. Must be brought into consciousness.
What is Jung's principle of entropy?
Over time, the amount of eneryg associated with opposites becomes less. When you are young, opposites are intensely experienced. When older, energy in opposite pairs is less. Leads to greater integration.
What are some differences between Frued and Jung's view of how the mind works?
In Freud's unconscious, the id had a lot more psychic energy. Ego gets control from id. Dark drives and overwhelming sexual desires were in the unconscious.

For Jung, mental energy was from opposites. The collective unconscious was not a place to avoid: success, first love, less dark than Freuds.

Jung's theory was much less scientific than Freuds.
What is Jung most remembered for?
Personality development continues throughout life.

Functions used in personality test:
Sensing, thinking, intuiting, feeling are dominant modalities. Each of us has a dominant modality. Most people develop one or two but could develop all.
Disucss the main differences between Freud and Alfred Adler's personality theory
Adler said that an agression drive was responsible when food, sex, or love were blocked. Freud said the sex drive was responsible.

Freud carved the person into id, ego, and superego. Adler said that to understand people, we must understand them as unified wholes in the context of their physical and social environment (holism).

Adler said to talk about lifestyle instead of individual traits when analyzing personality.

Adler said that motivation drives you forward rather than Freud's view that things that happened to you in the past (trauma) determine what you are like in the present.
What did Adler mean by Lifestyle?
How you handle problems and interpersonal relations.
According to Adler and Freud, when is personality and lifestyle developed?
Personality and lifestlyle are developed early in life, around age 5. New experiences do not easily change your prototype. They are interpreted in terms of the prototype.
How is Adler's therapy/approach different from Freud's?
Adler's therapy:
-face to face
-he does not want to appear as authority since patient could later attack
-cannot force person to believe, they must be open and discover
-must awaken the person's social interest
What are some criticisms of Adler's approach to therapy?
Adler approach:
-not scientific or experimental
-cannot measure 'strive' e.g.
How are Freud's and Adler's theories differnt? The same?
Freud had people living out their early conflicts while Adler had people developing towards goals.

With Adler, life becomes a challenge, not a penalty. Personality develops through lifespan into adulthood whereas Freud had patient living out defenses and neuroses.

They both believed that one's lifestyle was set up early in experience.
Freud said that development of the ego was based on managing drives and conflicts between the id and superego.

How did Erickson's theory differ?
Erikson placed emphasis on conflict free ego function: Information and Problem Solving.
According to Erikson, what was necessary for healthy ego function?
The following must gel in order for the ego to function:

a. body identity - image of the physical self.

b. ego ideal - image of people you admire and want to be like.

c. ego identity - what you think of yourself and the roles you play.

KEY developmental goal is to integrate these into a whole.
According to Erikson, what results if one fails to integrate the body identity, ego ideal, and ego identity?
Results in despair, confusion, and possible identity crisis.
What is a crisis according to Erikson?
A crisis is a re-evaluation of goals, values, and self. Usually occurs in adolescence.
Both Freud and Erikson describe development in terms of stages. What is the difference in factors that they consider?
For Freud, stages are tied to maturation of sexuality and drives.

For Erikson, stages are tied to social and interpersonal tasks.
What is each of Erikson's stages associated with (6 parts)?
1. Age Range
2. Crisis (Psycho-social)
3. Important Relationships
4. Modalities
5. Virtues assoc'd w-resolving crisis
6. Maladaptations and Malignancies if overemphasized
What did Erikson mean by epigenesis?
The stages unfold in a pre-defined order. Each builds on the previous and lays ground for the next
What should be accomplished at the journey of each stage in order not to form malignancies and maladaptations?
BALANCE. Dont deny either side.
According to Erikson, how does ego strength increase?
Ego strength increases through resolving the conflict between the 2 alternatives in each stage.