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57 Cards in this Set

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What is Repression?

Can it work long term? why not?
Repression is when the ego blocks an unacceptable impulse, emotion, or desire from consciousness.

Works for a short time but problem is that the id gets no satisfaction and the drive increases. There is a chance that the id may try to get immediate satisfaction
What is Reaction Formation?
In Reaction Formation, an unacceptable drive is made unconscious by over emphasizing the opposite drive.

Where there is intense emotion, expect that the undesirable emotion is being pushed down.
What is isolation?
Isolation is when the ego puts a barrier on unacceptable thoughts or emotions. The person becomes out of touch with his thoughts or feelings.

A barrier is built to keep the thought out of awareness
What is a Defense Mechanism?
A defense mechanism is when we distance ourselves from full awareness of unpleasant thoughts, feelings, or desires.

The thought or feeling is expressed in disguise.
What is undoing? Give an example.
In the defense mechanism of undoing, the ego lets you do the unacceptable act. Then you compensate or take it back to nullify it.

The desire is not eliminated.

Cheat on girlfriend, then buy her a gift. Insult someone then give them excessive praise.
What is denial?
Denial is when you keep the mind from seeing what's in the external world. The ego blocks it: "If I let him see this, its going to be bad."

Refusal to accept reality and act as if a painful event, thought, or feeling did not exist.
What is projection? Give an example
During projection, an unacceptable wish of your own is attributed to someone or something else.

A woman that is tempted to cheat on her husband begins to suspect that he is unfaithful.
What is Regression?
Regression is reverting to an earlier often immature stage of development in the face of unacceptable impulses.

Reduce the intensity of direct expression by doing immature acts instead of passionate sex.

Go into less dangerous mode to minimize intense version.
What is Introjection (Identification)?
Introjection is getting rid of an external danger by making it part of yourself.

Identification with the father in Oedipus complex. Prisoners who become helpful to guards and cruel to other prisoners as a way of psychologically reducing fear in prison camps.
In this defense mechanism, the ego blocks an unacceptable impulse, emotion, or desire from consciousness.

Works for a short time but the problem is that the id gets no satisfaction and the drive state increases.
Repression
In this Defense Mechanism, an unacceptable drive is made unconscious by over emphasizing the opposite drive.
Reaction Formation
In this Defense Mechanism, the ego builds a barrier to keep unacceptable thoughts or emotions out of awareness.
Isolation
When we distance ourselves from full awareness of unpleasant thoughts, feelings, or desires.

The thought or feeling is expressed in disguise.
Defense Mechanism
In this defense mechanism, the ego lets you do the unacceptable act. Then you compensate or take it back to nullify it.

Cheat on girlfriend, then buy her a gift. Insult someone then give them excessive praise
Undoing
In this defense mechanism, the ego keeps the mind from seeing what is in the external world. The ego says, "If I let him see this, its going to be bad."

It is a refusal to accept reality and act as if a painful event, thought, or feeling did not exist.
Denial
During this defense mechanism, an unacceptable wish of your own is attributed to someone or something else.

A man that is tempted to cheat on his wife may begin to suspect that she is unfaithful.
Projection
In this defense mechanism, the person reverts to an earlier immature stage of development in the face of undesirable impulses. Go into a less dangerous mode to minimize the intense version.

Reduce intensity of direct expression by doing immature sex acts instead of passionate sex.
Regression
In this defense mechanism, the external threat is gotten rid of by making it a part of oneself.

When the boy idenfities with the father in the Oedipus Complex.

Prisoners become helpful to guards and cruel to other prisoners as a way of psychologically reducing fear in prison camps.
Introjection
Identification
For Freud, Why was it important to pass successfully through the Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Adult Genital stages?
It was important because he felt that the development of personality styles and neuroses was related to success in managing these drives.

Over satisfaction or deprivation associated with drive reduction at a particular stage would affect personality.
What is the id?
This id the unconscious satisfaction seeking part of mental apparatus. Wants to take immediate direct route to satisfaction.
What is the ego?
The capacity for conscioius, logical thought. Develops from the id due to neurological maturation and experience with real world. Struggles with id and becomes stronger upon successes.
Goal: avoid harm
What is primary identification?
The child develops positive feelings towards parents and makes him inclined to adopt parents' values and expectations about proper behavior.
What is secondary identification?
Adopting values of the adult world
According to Freud, what are the 2 best methods of learning psychoanalysis?

What ways will not work to learn psychoanalysis?
Undergo analysis with a trained therapist is best way. Study ones own personality thru dreams, forgetting, slips of tongue. One could NOT learn PA thru attending lectures and was not permitted to attend therapy session of another because the patient would only open up to therapist where there is emotional attachment.
According to Freud's intro lecture, what 2 things make psychoanalysis unpopular?
Much of mental life is unconscious and we have desires of which we are not aware.

Sexual impulses play a part in neuroses.
What is Primary Identification?
When a child adopts parents' expectations and proper values about behavior
In the defense mechanism of _______, an unacceptable desire is made unconscious and the opposite desire is over emphasized.
Reaction formation
In the defense mechanism of _______ the person is not in touch with his feelings whereas in ________ the person is not in touch with reality
Isolation
Denial
When a child blames another for misbehavior or gets angry at a parent for his own misbehavior, he is using the defense mechanism of ________
Projection
What is sublimation?
An unacceptable desire is satisfied by changing it to something that is creative and socially acceptable.
I hate them becomes they hate me in the defense mechanism of ______________
Projection
What did Freud consider to be his greatest discovery?
Freud considered the laws by which the unconsciousness operate to be his greatest discovery.
What is the manifest content of a dream?

What is latent content?
Manifest content is what you see in the dream.

Latent content is what the dream means.
Dreamwork transorms the true ______ content meaning into symbolic form that is less recognizable called _______ content
Latent
Manifest
In dreams, symbolism involves replacing an element of ________ content with something similar or related that can stand for it.

_______ involves moving the target of ones desires from one object to another as in the desire for sex becomes the desire to win a game.

_______ involves reducing a complex set of ideas to something less complex.
Latent
Displacement
Condensation
What is Secondary Revision?
When the ego makes the manifest content of the dream more recognizable as a story.
What is the purpose of fairy tales?
Help children cope with psychological issues and conflicts associated with growing up without having to address them directly.

-show in literary form the basic problems of life.

-caution against destructive consequences if one fails to develop higher levels of responsibility.

-show parents that they must support a child's personal and sexual development.

-show that one cannot expect success on 1st, 2nd or even 3rd try.
What was the main idea of The Psychological Unconscious: Found, Lost, Regained?
Freud's view of the unconscious was hot, wet, angry, irrational, and primitive.

Today's view of the unconscious is different. Unconscious mental processes are monitored in controlled experiment:

-amnesics show influence from events that they cannot remember.

-some aspects of perception, language, and thought cannot be brought directly into consciousness.

-subjects respond to stimuli they cant see (no judgement about color, form or id, but location).
What did Freud think that he discovered in the case of Little Hans?
Freud thought he found examples of the role of sexual urges in the development of phobias, Oedipus complex, and repression.
What did Wolpe and Rachman conclude after studying the case of Little Hans?

What did they hope psychoanalysts would do?
There is no acceptable evidence showing a connection between his sexual behavior and phobia for horses.

-connection is an assumption & speculation.

-Freud only selected material that supports PA and ignore other facts.

-Hans was encouraged and lead by father in answering of many questions.

-evidence exists that Hans was fond of mother and wanted sexual stimulation but no evidence he wanted to replace father.

-no evidence that Hans hated or feared his father.

-Hans' fears and behavior can be explained in terms of learning theory.

They hope PA's will be more critical of their "discoveries."
What are examples of psychoanalytic approaches?
-Conflicting mental processes
-defense and self-deception
-influence of the past on current functioning
-compromises among competing psychological tendencies that may be negotiated unconsciously
-enduring effects of interpersonal patterns laid down in childhood
-role of sexual agressive wishes consciouis and unconscious influencing thoughts, feelings, and behavior
Why is Free Association useful?
A person can wittingly and undwittingly tell you about themselves, especially if they have a strong emotional attachment to you
What is the difference between psychanalytic approach and psychodynamic approach?
The psychodynamic approach accepts the importance of unconscious processes and conflicting forces in the mind but not libidinal and oedipus conflicts as Freud defined them
The underlying unconscious meaining of a dream is the ________ content and the consciously recalled plot is called the ________ content.
latent
manifest
What is the primary process and WHO uses it?

What is the secondary process and WHO uses it?
The primary process is illogical, wishful, nonvoluntary, and associative thinking used by the ID.

The ID is the reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy and it operates on the primary process.

Secondary process is controlled, rational, voluntary, planful thinking used by the EGO.
Where do some Post Freudians disagree with Freud?
-Humans are not only biologically conditioned but culturally conditioned.

-Humans are prosocial.

-Human Psychology is not only to reduce tensions but also for meaning in life and relate to others.
What are some legitimate objections to psychoanalysis?
-Does PA uncover actual memories and experiences or do doctor and patient create a new reality that becomes important?

-Is PA a good science or is data contaminated by observer bias?

-Which is more important, what actually happened or what one thinks happened?
What are some of Greenbaum's Criticisms of Psychoanalysis?
PA is not a good science because it is unfalsifiable and therefore untestable. Anything can be proven.

There is no evidence that PA is better than other forms of treatment in eliminating neurotic symptoms.

Suggestion by therapist contaminates evidence.
What is the Tally Argument?
Freud claimed that the interpretations that make sense to the patient will remain and the ones that don't make sense will be weeded out.

The proof in the interpretation is that the patient improves.
What are some philosophical criticisms of Psychoanalysis?
-Predictions cannot be tested.
-Suggestability
-The theory is not subject to falsification
What does it mean to say that Psychoanalysis is not subject to falsification?
A therapist can always interpret the results as being consistent with the theory.

Arises because the theory focuses on symbolic and not literal meaning.
Why is it impossible to apply the scientific method to Psychoanalysis?
The focus is on mental activity and not behavior. A therapist can interpret slips of the tongue, resistance, dreams and symptoms based on persuasiveness.

The scientific method depends on proofs that are concrete, available to the public, and repeatable.
Identify the Defense Mechanism:

A person hates their mother but shows intense affection for her.

A person hates their father but he tries to be just like him.
Reaction Formation

Identification (Introjection)
Freud used the Case study method to help develop the theories of Psycho-analysis. What are some weaknesses?
-The therapist may pay more attention and have better recall of things that are important to him, not necessarily the patient.

-Each case may be unique. Hard to build a theory around so many unique cases.

-The therapist can unintentionally influence the patient's memories.
What are some problems with saying that psychoanalysis is working to cure neuroses?
-Sometimes hysterical symptoms may go away by themselves. If a patient is cured, this is not necessarily proof that PA got at their true thoughts.

-Other treatments produce cures. If hysterical symptoms are always caused by repression, then only releasing the unacceptable wishes should cure the person. Behavior therapy does not release repressed feelings but it can produce cures.
What might Freud say to defend himself against critics of Psycho-analysis?
-The case method is necessary.

-The distinction between mental life and behavior was discovered by me.

-The rules of the primary process cannot be studied by the scientific method but they are still valid.

-Those who reject my theory may know it well but they have not experienced it
Hilight Sophie Freud's Baby and Bathwater article.
We can take these ideas from PA:

-Consider what something means from the individual's point of view.

-Throw away the unconscious as being aggressive drives but accept that some parts of mental functioning occurs outside of awareness.

-Helpful during therapy to help patients differently understand their emotions (crisis becomes opportunity, loneliness becomes a chance to be embraced).

-Surface behavior is incomplete and deceptive.

-Talking cure was better than other treatments at that time.

-Acting out and Airing feelings to the fullest extent is still used in therapy today.