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24 Cards in this Set

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According to DSM IV, what is needed for a MR Diagnosis?
Sub average intelligence below 70 IQ and a low level of adaptive function in 2 areas:

communication, self-care, social skills, self-direction, health, and safety
How does AAMR differ from DSM IV with respect to diagnosis of MR?
Base MR diagnosis on how much support a person needs in the environment.
T/F
Children with MR are very similar in their level of functioning.
False
T/F
MR occurs/is diagnosed more among children from minority groups.
True
List 5 facts about MR
Children with MR vary widely in their degree of disaability and level of fn.

MR occurs in 1-3% of the population and > in males.

Children with MR go thru the same developmental stages as normal kids but expectation of failure and frustration cause them to achieve lower levels.

Both genetic and environmental factors play a powerful role in intelligence.
List some causes of MR
There are 1,000 genetic disorders associated with MR.

A genetic or environmental cause is known for 66% individuals with profound or mild MR.

Lack of Oxygen at birth.
Meningitis.
List 5 facts about Down Syndrome.
DS kids are very sociable and easy to get happy.

They have language problems and language deficits.
What are some protective factors for stress?
Positive attachment to someone

self efficacy and self esteem

timing of events

cognitive factors (how you appraise a situation)

previous experience and if you were successful
What is the basis of respondent conditioning?
Learning occurs when things are paired.

Needle (UCS) ---> Pain (UCR)

Dr. (CS) ---> Pain (CR)
What is operant conditioning?
Learning is a result of consequences that follow behavior.

reinforcement - inc rate of behavior.

punishment - dec rate of behavior
What is the difference between positive and negative punishment?
Positive Punishment - take away something good.

Negative Punishment - add something aversive
What is extinction?
Extinction is removing the positive reinforcement that was maintaining the behavior.

If a kid tantrums to get candy, remove the attention when they carry on. You took away what maintained the behavior.
A child watches another person perform a behavior they already know and they become more likely to do it.
Response Facilitation
A child will copy a behavior that they fear to do if they see someone else do it and they have no punishment or negative outcome.
Disinhibitory Modeling
A child is less likely to perform a behavior if they see someone get punished for it.
Inhibitory Modeling
List 5 facts about children with Autism
Is a spectrum disorder because there is a wide range of abilities.

Have deficits in 3 main areas

-Social interaction
poor eye contact, lack of interest in others, socially detached, lack of empathy

-language -significant delays in language, some only acquire a few words

-Behavior is restrictive and repetitious, obsessive.

Motor behavior - rock back and forth, hand flap

-Tantrums, agression, self-injury.
What do problem behaviors result from?
Problem behaviors result from a mismatch between the person's abilities and the demands of the environment.
How can problem behaviors be dealt with?
Change environment

Teach skills to deal with environment
What is important in making a replacement behavior successful?
The replacement behavior must

1. serve the same function.
2. must be efficient
What is the most effective treatment for autism?
Early behavior intervention
When stimuli are given over and over, and the appropriate responses are reinforced:
Discrete Trial Training
The response is given. Gradually give up step by step moves till they can do it completely
Prompting
Break behavior into steps and reinforce along the way.
Shaping
Link together small behaviors that form a larger one. Break a complex skill into small components.
Chain